Considero que no es que por ganar o haber sido designado en el puesto, este le pertenezca a ella y, desde esa nueva posición, ella pueda decidir a quien atender y a quien no. El ejercicio del servicio público no se trata de opciones (It’s not about what you believe), sino un deber y como tal no debe discriminarse a ninguna persona respecto de los bienes y servicios que el Estado brinda a sus ciudadanos.
El servicio público es imperativo para todo servidor civil. La administración pública y el servicio civil se caracterizan por la objetividad que se materializa en el hecho de evitar que elementos personales o individuales afecten el criterio del servidor civil al momento de tomar decisiones.
Es como se dice: “pensar con la razón y no tanto con el corazón”. Ello no obsta que el servidor civil tenga un espectro de acción que le lleve a hacer lo correcto pero sin afectar negativa e injustificadamente la situación jurídica del Estado o los derechos del ciudadano.
The U.S. Supreme Court on Monday turned down a Kentucky county clerk’s request for an emergency order allowing her to continue to deny marriage licenses to same-sex couples while she appeals a federal judge’s order requiring her to do so. USA TODAY
WASHINGTON — The Supreme Court refused Monday to let a Kentucky county clerk deny marriage licenses to same-sex couples because of what she said were her religious beliefs.
The ruling, made without comment or any apparent dissents, is an early indication that while some push-back against gay marriage on religious grounds may be upheld, the justices won’t tolerate it from public officials.
In one of the first tests of the court’s June 26 decision upholding the rights of gays and lesbians to marry, Rowan County Clerk Kim Davis had argued that her Christian faith prevented her from recognizing such marriages.
Rather than deny only same-sex couples, which the high court had said would be unconstitutional, she chose to stop issuing marriage licenses altogether — and was sued by same-sex and opposite-sex couples.
Davis argued that her refusal was not a major burden for the couples, since Kentucky has about 136 other marriage-licensing locations. But federal district and appeals court judges had refused to grant her wish, forcing Davis to seek the Supreme Court’s intervention. Her petition was filed late last week by the conservative legal group Liberty Counsel.
“If a (same-sex marriage) license is issued with Davis’ name, authorization, and approval, no one can unring that bell,” the petition said. “That searing act of validation would forever echo in her conscience.”
The high court’s ruling doesn’t end Davis’ challenge, still pending at the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 6th Circuit — the same appellate court that previously allowed Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio and Tennessee to block same-sex marriage before being overruled by the Supreme Court. But it means that in the meantime, her office must issue marriage licenses.
Rowan County clerk Kim Davis asks the highest court for permission to deny marriage licenses to same-sex couples on grounds of religious freedom
Rowan County Kentucky clerk Kim Davis shows emotion as she is cheered by a gathering of supporters during a rally on the steps of the Kentucky state capitol on Saturday. Photograph: Timothy D. Easley/AP
Two months after it legalized gay marriage nationwide, the US supreme court is being asked by a Kentucky county clerk for permission to deny marriage licenses to same-sex couples.
Rowan County clerk Kim Davis objects to same-sex marriage for religious reasons. The supreme court says the constitution guarantees gay people have the right to marry, but Davis contends the first amendment guarantees her the right of religious freedom.
She stopped issuing all marriage licenses the day after the supreme court effectively legalized gay marriage nationwide in June.
Two gay couples and two straight couples sued Davis, arguing she must fulfill her duties as an elected official. A federal judge ordered Davis to issue the licenses and an appeals court upheld that decision. Davis’s lawyers said they petitioned the supreme court on Friday to delay that decision until her appeal is finished, a process that could take months.
Her attorneys with the Christian law firm Liberty Counsel wrote in their appeal to the court that Davis is seeking “asylum for her conscience”.
Justice Elena Kagan, who joined the majority opinion that effectively legalized gay marriage across the US, will hear Davis’s case.
University of Louisville law professor Sam Marcosson said he believes Kagan will deny Davis’s request based on the court’s earlier decision.
Davis has refused to comply with several court orders in recent weeks, turning away gay couples over and over. She says they could easily drive to a nearby county to get a marriage license. But gay couples argue they have a right to get a marriage license in the county where they live, work and pay taxes.
Davis has said she will not resign her $80,000-a-year job and will never issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples – even if the supreme court denies her request.
“If a (same-sex marriage) license is issued with Davis’s name, authorization and approval, no one can unring that bell,” she wrote the court. “That searing act of validation would forever echo in her conscience.”
Her attorney, Jonathan D Christman, wrote that forcing her to issue licenses is akin to forcing a person who objects to war into the battlefield, or forcing a person against capital punishment to carry out an execution.
Davis cannot be fired because she is an elected official. The legislature could impeach her, but that is unlikely given that many state lawmakers share her beliefs. The Republican president of the state senate spoke at a rally last week in support of Davis.
The gay couples that sued her could ask US district judge David Bunning to hold Davis in contempt. That would trigger another court hearing and would likely include testimony from Davis herself. The judge could then order hefty fines or even put her in jail until she complies with the order.
La delegación paraguaya del Parlamento del Mercosur cuenta con más de 60 funcionarios. Sobre lo que hace una mayoría, que está a la orden de los 18 legisladores de nuestro país, no existe ningún control.
Adrián Jara, director general de la delegación del Parlasur./Marcos Cáceres, ABC Color
Los parlasurianos no tienen oficina legislativa fija y prácticamente no concurren a su sede ubicada en las instalaciones del Centro Cultural El Cabildo.
Adrián Jara, director general de la delegación paraguaya del Parlasur, dijo en entrevista con periodistas que este organismo no tiene 43 directores, pese a que esa cantidad de funcionarios ostentan ese rango, según el registro del Ministerio de Hacienda. Aseguró que solamente hay un director general, que es él, y otros tres directores que están para “apoyo logístico”.
Indicó también que cada parlamentario paraguayo del Mercosur tiene al menos dos funcionarios a su cargo, a los que nadie controla y, por la índole de su trabajo, no tienen obligación de marcar tarjeta o firmar asistencia. Según dijo, cada uno ganaría salario mínimo, es decir G. 1.800.000
Sobre el trabajo habitual de los funcionarios que están en la sede del Parlasur, unos 20, dijo que son el apoyo logístico de los legisladores, a los que proveen de todo tipo de información en la preparación para las escasas sesiones que tienen a nivel nacional e internacional.
Este año hubo una sola reunión del Parlasur en su sede de Montevideo. El motivo, según Jara, fue que había elecciones en Brasil y Uruguay y no tenían sus parlamentarios designados. Aseguró que también se reúnen a nivel nacional cada un mes o cuando hay un tema importante.
Como ejemplo, dijo que se reunieron cuando el gobierno brasileño anunció que se reduciría el tope de compras que podían hacer los turistas de ese país en Ciudad del Este. Esto motivó una reunión en la que se decidió acompañar a las asociaciones de comerciantes para que se mantenga el monto habitual de US$ 300 e inclusive pedir el aumento del mismo. Por cada viaje que hacen a Montevideo o a otro país de la región, los parlamentarios paraguayos del Parlasur cobran un viático diario de US$ 300.
Sobre el motivo por el cual no “hacen oficina”, dijo que es porque no existe infraestructura para albergarlos, como tienen los diputados y senadores. Indicó que las reuniones las hacen en su despacho particular y cuando deben reunirse, tienen una sala en la sede del Cabildo. En cuanto a la parte administrativa, todos los funcionarios están a cargo del Senado, que maneja el presupuesto del Parlasur.
La sede del Parlamento del Mercosur se encuentra en Montevideo, Uruguay. Según su reglamento, deben reunirse al menos una vez al mes. Sin embargo, este año hubo una sola reunión. En 2014 se reunieron cinco veces y durante todo el 2013, solamente dos. De acuerdo a los datos oficiales del Ministerio de Hacienda, el presupuesto anual de la delegación paraguaya del Parlasur es de más de G. 27 mil millones (unos US$ 5 millones)
Por nuestro país, integran el legislativo regional los colorados Alfonso González Núñez, Antonio Attis, Calixto Bernal, Herminio Cáceres, José Torres, Luis Sarubbi, Miguel Sosa, Tomás Bittar, Zacarías Vera Cárdenas y Concepción Cubas. También los liberales Alberto Aquino, Amanda Núñez, Emmanuel Friedmann, Juan Antonio Denis, Miguel Ángel González Erico y Mirtha Palacios, Además, Ramón Domínguez, de Unace, y Ricardo Canese, del Frente Guasu.
WASHINGTON, DC – Today, the President’s Commission on White House Fellowships announced the appointment of the 2015-2016 class of White House Fellows. The Fellows come from diverse backgrounds, and varied professions, and have demonstrated a strong commitment to public service and leadership. The 2015-2016 class of Fellows and their biographies are included below.
The White House Fellows program was created in 1964 by President Lyndon B. Johnson to give promising American leaders “first hand, high-level experience with the workings of the Federal government, and to increase their sense of participation in national affairs.” This unique opportunity to work within our nation’s government is designed to encourage active citizenship and a lifelong commitment to service. The Fellows take part in an education program designed to broaden their knowledge of leadership, policy formulation, and current affairs. Community service is another essential element of the program, and Fellows participate in service projects throughout their year in Washington, D.C.
Selection as a White House Fellow is highly competitive and based on a record of professional achievement, evidence of leadership potential, and a proven commitment to public service. Each Fellow must possess the knowledge and skills necessary to contribute meaningfully at senior levels of the Federal government. Throughout its history, the program has fostered leaders in many fields, including government, business, law, media, medicine, education, diplomacy, and the military. Additional information about the White House Fellows program is available at www.whitehouse.gov/fellows.
2015-2016 Class of White House Fellows:
C. Spencer Abbot, Yorktown, VA, is a Commander in the United States Navy. He recently served as Commanding Officer of Strike-Fighter Squadron 27 in Atsugi, Japan. The squadron was recognized with the “Battle E” award as the top FA-18E/F squadron in the Pacific Fleet for 2014. He established the first afloat foreign language program for a carrier air wing, and organized a partnership with a Japanese elementary school. In 2001 and 2003, he flew combat missions at the outsets of the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. He then studied Spanish at the Defense Language Institute, and worked as a volunteer diver at the Monterey Bay Aquarium. He later served as an EF-18 Hornet exchange pilot with the Spanish Air Force. He received the 2008 Exceptional Pilot Award from among all Navy pilots after combat operations in Iraq. He worked in Haiti following the 2010 earthquake, and coordinated with the Japanese government from U.S. Embassy Tokyo following the 2011 tsunami. Author of a number of published articles, he served as Brigade Commander at the U.S. Naval Academy, holds a Master’s Degree and Ph.D. in International Relations from the Fletcher School, and an Executive M.B.A., taken in Spanish, from Instituto de Empresa in Madrid.
Teeb Al-Samarrai, Oakland, CA, is a physician and epidemiologist who served as Deputy Health Officer and Tuberculosis Controller at the Santa Clara County Public Health Department in California. Her work focused on immigrant and refugee health issues, particularly tuberculosis and hepatitis B. Prior to this, Teeb served as a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer at the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. She’s worked internationally in diverse settings and in 2010, participated in CDC’s emergency response to the Haiti earthquake. She completed her internal medicine residency at Yale-New Haven Hospital, where she partnered with a local NGO, Integrated Refugee and Immigrant Services, to establish a multidisciplinary, patient-centered refugee clinic. For this work, she was recognized with the Fred L. Sachs Award and Chief Residents’ Service Award. Her work has been published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at national meetings, and cited in the New York Times. Teeb served on the California Tuberculosis Controllers Association Executive Committee and the TEDMED Editorial Advisory Board. She graduated as a Regents and Alumni Scholar from the University of California, Los Angeles with a B.S. in Neuroscience. She received her M.D. and an M.S. in Neuroscience from Yale University.
Andrew Anderson, Douglas, WY, is a Major in the U.S. Air Force. He recently served as the program director for a classified Department of Defense system that supported operations of highest national priority. Previously, Andrew was a Flight Test Engineer for the Air Force Test Center, where he led a team testing combat enhancements to Air Force bomber aircraft. In this role, Andrew was also the Chief Test Director for the recent X-51A hypersonic air vehicle program and led execution for this joint DoD-NASA effort that achieved a record-breaking final flight at Mach 5. In 2008, he deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and fielded specialized electronic jamming equipment to roadside bomb disposal teams throughout Northern Iraq, earning the Bronze Star. Andrew received a B.S. in Astronautical Engineering from the U.S. Air Force Academy as a distinguished graduate, and earned M.S. degrees in Aerospace Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School. His volunteer work has included service with homeless outreach programs in the Washington, DC area, and as a mentor, math teacher and leadership seminar facilitator for inner-city middle school students with the Higher Achievement program.
Alexander Billioux, Simpsonville, SC, is an internist focused on primary care and improving health care delivery globally. He served as Assistant Chief of the Osler Medical Service at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, where he trained and mentored more than 140 internal medicine residents while treating patients in East Baltimore. He served as Co-Chair of the Department of Medicine’s High Value Care Committee, through which he led system-wide interventions to promote high value medical care. This included developing an innovative behavior change intervention aimed at reducing wasteful and potentially harmful medical practices, which the Society of Hospital Medicine recently adopted. Alex’s prior work and research has focused internationally on diseases of poverty such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis in India, Guatemala, Haiti, and South Africa. As an Afya Bora Fellow in Global Health Leadership, he spent a year developing a public-private partnership to improve tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment in rural Uganda, and ran a clinical trial to improve tuberculosis management at rural health centers. He is a Marshall and Goldwater Scholar who received an M.D. from Johns Hopkins University, a D.Phil. in clinical medicine from the University of Oxford, and a B.A., summa cum laude, from the Louisiana Scholars’ College at Northwestern State University of Louisiana.
Sara Bleich, Baltimore, MD, worked as an Associate Professor of Health Policy and Management at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She was responsible for leading research teams, speaking nationally and internationally, teaching, and advising students. Sara has published more than 75 papers in top journals of public health and medicine and is widely known for her research on obesity prevention. Prior to Hopkins, Sara worked as a Research Associate at the RAND Corporation and The Measurement Group. Sara has received several awards: “most outstanding abstract” at the International Conference on Obesity, “best research manuscript” in the journal Obesity, and first prize for “excellence in public interest communication” from the Frank Public Interest Conference. Sara is the recipient of several competitive grant awards: a Career Development Award from the National Institutes of Health and multiple Healthy Eating Research grants from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Sara is a Board Member at Garrison Forest School, an independent girls’ school. Sara volunteers for the Baltimore Education Scholarship Trust by speaking to donors to raise funds for low-income, minority students to attend independent school. Sara received a B.A. in Psychology from Columbia University and a Ph.D. in Health Policy from Harvard University.
Naomi Dennis, Houston, TX, is a Major in the United States Air Force and most recently served as Deputy Staff Judge Advocate to the Commander of the Air Force Expeditionary Center. Having served as both a prosecutor and defense attorney, Naomi has frequently lectured on advanced trial advocacy and used her experience in sexual assault litigation to create an interactive training module for Air Force senior leaders on how to manage sexual assault allegations from trauma to trial. During her deployment to Baghdad, her work in the Central Criminal Court of Iraq led to the successful prosecution of several high value targets. In 2010, she was named the American Bar Association’s Outstanding Young Military Lawyer of the Year. Naomi also co-founded Pink Isn’t Always Pretty, a 501c(3) non-profit grassroots organization promoting breast health and awareness among young women of color. She served as PIAP’s Executive Director from 2009-2013. Naomi received her B.A. from Howard University and her J.D. from the University of Texas School of Law where she was appointed to the National Order of Barristers. Prior to her appointment as a Fellow, Naomi was selected to serve as a judge on the Air Force Court of Criminal Appeals.
Shereef Elnahal, Baltimore, MD, is taking a leave from residency in Radiation Oncology at Johns Hopkins Hospital. He has authored over a dozen publications on health care quality, operations management, and patient safety. Shereef co-developed a published methodology that doubled clinic efficiency in the Johns Hopkins Pancreatic Multidisciplinary Clinic, cutting patient wait times by half. As an operations consultant for Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and Pittsburgh VA hospitals, he expanded on this work to improve care access for veterans and active duty servicemembers. He was a Fellow in the Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality, and served as Chair of the House Staff Patient Safety and Quality Council at Hopkins. Shereef served on advisory boards for two firms focused on patient education and clinical operations. He also co-founded the Baltimore chapter of The Triple Helix, a 501(c)(3) non-profit that publishes an internationally-circulated journal on science in society. His civic contributions earned him the 2015 National Quality Scholar Award from the American College of Medical Quality. Shereef received a dual-degree M.D. and M.B.A. with Distinction from Harvard University, where he was President of the Harvard Longwood Muslim association. He also graduatedsumma cum laude with a B.A. in biophysics from Johns Hopkins University.
September Hargrove, New Orleans, LA, served as Chief Operating Officer of the PowerMoves. NOLA Initiative at the New Orleans Startup Fund, where she led a national effort to address the lack of racial diversity in tech entrepreneurship and provide access to venture capital for high-growth entrepreneurs of color. Her efforts have supported nearly 90 startups collectively raise over $17 million. In 2014, she was recognized as one of the 100 most influential people in tech and entrepreneurship throughout Louisiana. Prior to this, September was the Economic Development Policy & Program Manager for Mayor Mitch Landrieu of New Orleans, LA. Her work focused on creating an economic opportunity agenda and the development of the City’s Reentry Workforce Strategy for ex-offenders. September began her career as a gubernatorial appointee and legislative specialist in the Arnold Schwarzenegger Administration. She is an alumnus of the California Senate Fellowship and Public Policy International Affairs (PPIA) programs. September has served on the boards of the Young Leadership Council, New Orleans Women’s Shelter, New Orleans Regional Leadership Institute, and the Sacramento County Children’s Coalition. She holds a Master in Public Policy and Urban Planning from the Harvard Kennedy School of Government and B.A. from the University of California, Berkeley.
Corey Harrison, Browns Mills, NJ, was the Corporate Strategy Executive at iCIMS, a leading talent acquisition software company. At iCIMS, Corey drove the development and execution of corporate strategy and evaluated merger and acquisition opportunities. Before joining iCIMS, Corey was an Associate Director at UBS Investment Bank where he advised private equity general partners on raising institutional capital. Corey began his career in information technology and operations, first as an Analyst in the Johnson & Johnson Information Management Leadership Development Program, in which he received the highest performance rating and finished at the top of his class worldwide, and later as a Six Sigma Black Belt for AIG and the Tata Group. Concurrent with his professional and academic endeavors, Corey has held several community leadership roles and has spent fifteen years mentoring and training thousands of young professionals on leadership and entrepreneurship. Corey received an M.B.A. from Yale University, where he was awarded the Mendillo-Earle Scholarship and fellowships from the Robert Toigo Foundation, Consortium for Graduate Studies in Management, and Goldman Sachs. Corey received a B.S. in Business and Economics from Lehigh University and an M.S. in Leadership and Information Technology from Duquesne University.
La’Shanda Holmes, Fayetteville, NC, is a Lieutenant in the U.S. Coast Guard and is the Coast Guard’s first African-American female helicopter pilot. After growing up in the foster care system, she put herself through college, became a pilot, and amassed over 1,500 flight hours conducting search and rescue, counter drug, and law enforcement missions. She was previously stationed at Air Station Atlantic City as an Aircraft Commander and managed over 6,800 flight hours for the Coast Guard’s largest MH-65 helicopter unit. She deployed five times to Washington, DC, as a Rotary Wing Air Intercept pilot where she supervised an 18-member team and sustained two strip alert aircraft to defend the President and the Nation’s capital in support of Operation Noble Eagle. Her honors include the 2014 Blacks in Government award, selection as one of Grio’s Top 100 History Makers, and a nomination for an NAACP award for her work on The Smithsonian’s “Black Wings” documentary. She is a Bonner Scholar, graduated Spelman College with a degree in psychology, and is a graduate student at Oklahoma University. She sits on the board of directors of two non-profits that enrich youth through aviation: Tomorrow’s Aeronautical Museum and Girls Fly!
Rayden Llano, Miami, FL, was Program Director of Health Policy and Economics at LSE Enterprise, where he worked with public institutions on health policy issues and conducted healthcare research. Previously, he worked with the Clinton Health Access Initiative in Rwanda and as a consultant to the World Health Organization (WHO) in Asia, where he developed a tuberculosis and migration framework providing policy guidance to WHO member states. As a Luce Scholar at the University of Tokyo, he was the lead author of a study published in The Lancet and helped secure funding for the establishment of a global health committee within the Japanese parliament that has been chaired by two former prime ministers. Collectively, he has worked on healthcare issues in the U.S., Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America. He is an advisor to the president of the Hispanic Heritage Foundation and mentors Hispanic high school and college students. A Marshall Scholar, he received an M.P.P. from the University of Cambridge, an M.Sc. in International Health Policy and Health Economics from the London School of Economics, and a B.A. in Human Biology from Stanford University.
Jennifer Macdonald, St. Cloud, MN, is a veteran of Operation Iraqi Freedom and a Family Medicine physician at UCLA. She served 11 years in the Minnesota Army National Guard and completed a tour abroad, during which she volunteered as a medical provider in addition to her primary duties as a musician. She completed morale missions to remote bases as a keyboardist and traveled as a solo vocalist to high profile international Transition of Authority ceremonies, performing the American and Iraqi national anthems as territories of Iraq were relinquished from American back to Iraqi authority. She participated in humanitarian aid missions to benefit disabled children of Basra, Iraq, and was awarded a U.S. Army Bronze Star for her collective efforts. She is committed to care of the underserved, and toward this end, co-led a humanitarian mission to East Africa and co-founded an NGO during her undergraduate years at the College of St. Benedict, served as a class representative and free clinic volunteer during her time at the University of Minnesota Medical School, engaged in multiple patient outreach and quality initiatives with the UCLA Family Medicine Residency Program, served on the California Academy of Family Physicians Resident Council, and established a lasting connection between her institution and the West Los Angeles VA Homeless Patient Aligned Care Team. A rich family life with her husband and two young children balances her professional aspirations.
Erik Malmstrom, West Hartford, CT, was a Business Development Manager for Cargill Grain and Oilseed Supply Chain Mideast and Africa at Cargill, Inc., a leading multinational agribusiness. He was responsible for sourcing, analyzing, and managing investment opportunities across Africa, including his business unit’s largest ever acquisition of an oilseed crush plant in Zambia. Prior to Cargill, he served as an infantry officer in the U.S. Army, graduating from Army Ranger and Airborne Schools and earning the Bronze Star Medal for outstanding combat service as a rifle platoon leader in northeastern Afghanistan. Subsequently, he worked as an impact investor, strategy consultant, and independent researcher in Afghanistan, Egypt, Haiti, and other transitional economies before co-founding CrossBoundary LLC, an investment advisory firm dedicated to unlocking the power of capital to make strong returns and lasting impact in frontier markets. He has been a contributing writer to the New York Times, term member on the Council on Foreign Relations, and co-president of Harvard Alumni for Agriculture. He received a B.A. magna cum laude from the University of Pennsylvania and a joint M.B.A. and M.P.P. from Harvard Business and Kennedy Schools, and was a Rotary Ambassadorial Scholar at Makerere University in Uganda.
Rei Onishi, Citrus Heights, CA, was a Deputy Attorney General in the California Department of Justice. He was responsible for defending the constitutionality of California’s laws, and helped craft and implement the legal strategy to defend California’s 2012 public pension reforms. He also played a leading role in developing and implementing the Department’s agenda to fight transnational organized crime, and served as an adviser to the Department’s Bureau of Children’s Justice. Before joining the Department, Rei clerked on the U.S. Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals, worked on justice sector reform in West Africa, taught in Japan through the JET Program, co-authored travel books, and was a California Senate Fellow. As President of the Buck Scholars Association, Rei co-founded the Buck Fellows Program, a mentoring and scholarship program for low-income high school students whose parents never graduated from college. He also served on the Board of Directors of Wu Yee Children’s Services and the American Constitution Society Bay Area Lawyer Chapter. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa/magna cum laude from Harvard and received his M.P.P. from the Kennedy School of Government and J.D. from Harvard Law School, where he was an editor on the Harvard Law Review and a Chayes International Public Service Fellow.
Maxeme Tuchman, Miami, FL, served as the Executive Director of Teach For America Miami-Dade and was responsible for overseeing daily regional operations for 26 staff members and cultivating $6M of private and public support in service of over 500 current teachers and alums. Prior to that, she served in Mayor Bloomberg’s bullpen managing the NYC Waterfalls, a public art installation that generated $69 million in economic activity. She also co-created the NYC Civic Corps, an AmeriCorps VISTA program that in its first three years had 448 participants hosted by 97 organizations that then were able to utilize 1.7 million new volunteers. Her commitment to educational equity began as a Teach For America corps member, teaching 480 high school students in inner-city Miami, and has led to working on educational innovation projects with organizations such as the Harlem Children’s Zone, DC Public Schools, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. She is a graduate of the Coro Fellowship in Public Affairs and the Miami Fellows Leadership Program. Maxeme received her B.A. from New College of Florida and holds an M.P.P. from the Harvard Kennedy School of Government and an M.B.A. from the Harvard Business School.
Kamillah Wood, Washington, DC, served as the Associate Medical Director of Mobile Health Programs at Children’s National Health System, providing comprehensive medical care to underserved children in the Anacostia region of Washington, DC. In addition to providing direct clinical and wraparound services, she created an educational program for parents and families called the Legislative Educational Advocacy Program (LEAP), which helped to inform local community members about current policy issues, the legislative process and the importance of civic engagement. Prior to this position, Kamillah completed a fellowship in health policy and health disparities as a Mongan Commonwealth Fund Fellow in Minority Health Policy where she also obtained an M.P.H. from the Harvard University School of Public Health. In addition to her fellowship training, Kamillah completed her pediatrics residency at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, where she was selected to be a Chief Resident. In this leadership role, she worked on several hospital-wide committees to address issues from emergency preparedness to implementation of an inpatient electronic health record. She received her M.D. from George Washington University School of Medicine as a member of Alpha Omega Alpha, and graduated summa cum laude, Phi Beta Kappa from Howard University.
El servicio civil peruano se basa en el mérito, la igualdad de oportunidades y el aseguramiento de la calidad de los servicios del Estado en beneficio de la ciudadanía.
a) El mérito busca que los puestos del servicio civil sean ocupados por las personas idóneas, en virtud de sus habilidades, aptitudes y capacidades. En consecuencia, el mérito es el fundamento en los procesos de selección, progresión en la carrera y evaluación de desempeño, así como en la gestión de la capacitación, gestión del rendimiento y la permanencia en el servicio civil. El mérito en evaluación se demuestra en función de los aportes del servidor a los objetivos de la entidad.
b) La igualdad de oportunidades en el servicio civil es esencial para la incorporación y progresión de los servidores, implica que, en mérito de ello, cualquier persona interesada en un puesto en una entidad pública en el caso de la incorporación y cualquier servidor civil de carrera, en el caso de la progresión, puede postular en igualdad de condiciones en los procesos de selección, siempre que cumpla con las condiciones generales para la postulación y los requisitos del perfil del puesto vacante.
c) El servicio civil se orienta, a través de la aplicación de las mejores prácticas y mejora continua en los procesos de cada entidad, a la obtención de los resultados y metas programados que redunden en la mejora de la calidad de las actividades, acciones y servicios del Estado que corresponden a la ciudadanía.
El presidente del Uruguay se mostró afín a crear un sistema de incentivos para que gane más el que se esfuerza más dentro de la administración del Estado.
El presidente José Mujica dijo que si pudiera cambiaría la inamovilidad de los funcionarios públicos, pero que existen trabas para hacerlo por lo que se mostró afín a implementar un sistema de “contrapartidas” que premie al más trabajador.
Mujica concedió una entrevista al programa del reconocido periodista Jordi Evole de la cadena La Sexta de España. Évole estuvo en Uruguay en la primer semana de mayo y lo consultó sobre la privatización de empresas públicas.
“Sabemos que si fuera privado estaría mejor administrado, pero con esta diferencia: lo que generan acá aunque paguen algunos sueldos de más queda acá y si fuera privado por las dimensiones que tiene se va para afuera”, dijo Mujica.
Lo que sí cambiaría es la inamovilidad de funcionarios. “En lo privado si tu no cuidas el trabajo te echan, y en lo público nadie te echa. Si pudiera lo cambiaría, pero no lo puedo cambiar”, dijo Mujica. Y agregó: “Lo que buscaría es aumentar la responsabilidad de los trabajadores del Estado. Un país como el nuestro es imprescindible que tenga un estado fuerte y que haga mucha cosa porque si no es una hoja de viento”.
Consultado al respecto de la “imagen” de que los funcionarios públicos trabajan poco, Mujica sostuvo que “esa imagen tiene una parte de verdad, pero es culpa nuestra”.
“Es permisivo en nuestra historia. Es una construcción política. Lo hicimos por demagogia, por clientelismo, por tener votos. Caímos en perdonavidas y en amiguismo. Has de acomodar a fulano o has de acomodar a mengano. El hombre siempre va a buscar la línea del menor esfuerzo“, dijo el presidente. Y concluyó: “Es lógico que hay que exigirle contrapartidas y que el tipo se esmere y que el que se esfuerza más se lleva un peso más. El que todo sea lo mismo no sirve”.
Tal como lo planteó en su presentación ante el Congreso de la República, el ministro del Interior, Walter Albán Peralta, dio inicio a los trabajos de su sector para la eliminación del servicio 24 x 24 y que la institución recupere la exclusividad de sus policías, quienes se ven forzados a prestar servicios de seguridad a otras empresas en sus días de franco.
El titular del Interior adelantó que ya dispuso la conformación de una comisión sectorial que tendrá a su cargo la elaboración de esta propuesta, con un plazo no mayor a treinta días.
Mediante resolución ministerial N° 1676-2013-IN, se creó esta comisión, la misma que estará encabezada por un integrante del Ministerio del Interior, y conformada por los viceministros de Orden Interno y de Gestión Institucional, además de un representante de la Secretaría General de la cartera.
También integrarán esta comisión el director general de la Policía Nacional, el jefe de Estado Mayor, el inspector general, el director nacional de Operaciones Especiales, el director nacional de Gestión Institucional y el director ejecutivo de Personal de la PNP, entre otros altos mandos policiales.
Esta comisión tendrá que presentar el informe que contendrá un diagnostico de la situación del personal policial de todo el país, un documento con los efectos del servicio 24 x 24, un análisis económico de la eventual eliminación de esta modalidad y una propuesta normativa de la misma.
Además, podrá conformar otros grupos de trabajo para abordar temas específicos para un mejor panorama de la propuesta. Dentro de estas subcomisiones podrán participar expertos en el tema y se podrá invitar a otros representantes.
(1) Every German shall have in every Land the same civic rights and duties. (2) Every German shall be equally eligible for any public offi ce according to his aptitude, qualifications, and professional achievements. (3) Neither the enjoyment of civil and political rights, nor eligibility for public office, nor rights acquired in the public service shall be dependent upon religious affi liation. No one may be disadvantaged by reason of adherence or non-adherence to a particular religious denomination or philosophical creed. (4) The exercise of sovereign authority on a regular basis shall, as a rule, be entrusted to members of the public service who stand in a relationship of service and loyalty defi ned by public law. (5) The law governing the public service shall be regulated and developed with due regard to the traditional principles of the professional public service.
1. Employment in the public service
1.1 Two status groups of the public service
The constitution stipulates that the exercise of sovereign authority should, as a rule, be entrusted to members of the public service who stand in a relationship of service and loyalty defined by public law (Art. 33(4) of the Basic Law), that is, civil servants. In addition, public service tasks are performed by public employees without civil servant status.
Judges and military personnel stand in a special relationship to the federal level.
The Basic Law does not define what “sovereign authority” means. Therefore, Article 33(4) of the Basic Law is not considered as rigidly restricting the exercise of sovereign authority to civil servants. The professional civil service is intended to guarantee sound administration based on expertise, professional ability and loyal fulfilment of duties, and ensure that essential tasks are carried out continuously. Civil servants are mainly employed in core areas of administration, in particular in supervisory positions and in areas involving the exercise of sovereign authority (police, fire brigades, prison service, financial administration), but also in many areas of benefits administration. In contrast, public employees are employed in health and social services and in technical professions.
Given the relation between rule and exception defined in Article 33(4) of the Basic Law, the distinction between civil servants and public employees in terms of functions is fluid in practice. Each authority has a certain scope for action and may decide whether to employ civil servants or public employees.
The legal status of civil servants is governed by legal acts (laws and ordinances). The German Bundestag has the right to determine the rights and duties of civil servants as well as their salaries and pensions by law.
The employment of judges and military personnel, like that of civil servants, is also governed by public law. Public employees are employed on the basis of a contract under private law. General labour law applies to them as to all employees in Germany. However, specific working conditions are set out in collective agreements negotiated between the public employers at federal, Land or local level and the responsible unions (p. 59).
Public employees and civil servants have equal status. However, in addition to the restriction imposed by Article 33(4) of the Basic Law, there are significant differences between the two groups. In particular, only civil servants are subject to special obligations such as serving in a relationship of loyalty. The obligations of public employees, on the other hand, are based on their function as specified in the work contract and the collective agreements. Only civil servants are prohibited from striking, as a sign of their special loyalty to the state and ensuring that the core responsibilities of the public service are performed reliably without interruption.
Members of the Federal Government, i. e. the Federal Chancellor and the federal ministers, are not civil servants; their office is governed by public law and aimed at exercising governmental functions. However, this office under public law has developed out of employment as a civil servant and is governed by law, specifically the Act on Federal Ministers.
As office-holders who directly report to the parliament, the federal ministers manage their portfolios independently and on their own responsibilityin the framework of the general policy guidelines determined by the Federal Chancellor. They are not bound by instructions in individual cases and are not subject to any disciplinary power.
Depending on the size of their portfolios, the Cabinet members are assigned one to three parliamentary state secretaries; at the Federal Chancellery and the Federal Foreign Office they hold the title “Minister of State”. They must be members of the German Bundestag. Only direct assistants to the Federal Chancellery may assume this function even if they are not members of parliament. They represent and support the federal minister in fulfilling political and technical tasks, in particular in the plenary and in the Bundestag committees, in the Federal Cabinet and in public. The office of Parliamentary State Secretary is also governed by public law.
En: Der öffentliche Dienst des Bundes
– Bundesbeamtengesetz (BBG)
– Verordnung über die Laufbahnen der Bundesbeamtinnen und Bundesbeamten (Bundeslaufbahnverordnung – BLV)
Hay muchas opciones para la organización profesional del servicio civil. Por ejemplo, existe el modelo de Cuerpos Profesionales para la inducción de empleados profesionales que se usa en Francia. En este modelo elitista los empleados de carrera entran solo desde algunas escuelas preparatorias especiales, y son miembros de su cuerpo para su vida profesional incorporando siempre elementos de la política. De hecho, después de su servicio público muchos de ellos entran a la política y llegan a puestos elegidos por su influencia.
También hay el modelo de la Gran Bretaña, del burócrata sin carrera. Este modelo es medio elitista. La gran parte de ellos entran al servicio desde las universidades más prestigiadas del país, pero trabajan sin reconocimiento público y sin un papel directo político –solo avisan técnicamente los ministros de cualquier partido–, no hay puestos de confianza en sí. Después de su periodo de servicio nunca entran a la política.
El tercer modelo es lo que evolucionó y que se emplea en EEUU. Esto es el “modelo representativo” en el cual los servidores públicos reciben su formación académica en cualquiera universidad del país. Entran por examen y siguen recibiendo su capacitación profesional por dos vías: tanto internamente en la agencia gubernamental, como por programas universitarios en los que reciben diplomas y/o títulos profesionales. Aproximadamente 3% de estos puestos son puestos de confianza y ellos son actores políticos; los demás son integrantes del sistema de méritos.
Ese sistema no es elitista porque los empleados vienen de todas partes del país, y de todas las universidades. Sin embargo, para poner este modelo en efecto es necesario tener un sistema de universidades descentralizadas y de calidad académica, tal y como se hace en EEUU a través de un sistemas de acreditación nacional de universidades y de programas académicos.
El segundo problema –el tamaño de la burocracia–, no es fácil superar. La cantidad numerosa de empleados organizados jerárquicamente presenta oportunidades perversas para esconder información sobre su rendimiento, y recibir en efecto indemnización de su mala conducta. Este hecho es ayudado por la tendencia de burocracias largas a absorber información pasada a cada nivel. Lo que pueda resultar es la desmotivación de buenos empleados cuando saben que los malos son protegidos por las circunstancias.
La manera en la cual se evita este problema, en el sistema norteamericano, es a través de la evaluación de desempeño, tanto de individuos como de órganos o grupos. El primero es la medición del rendimiento del empleado y el segundo la productividad de la unidad. Pero para tener la evaluación de desempeño en buen funcionamiento hay que asegurar dos asuntos claves. Primero, que la información llegue a las manos de los empleados en si, y también a aquellos que toman las decisiones, a través de información específica, sobre conducta. Segundo, que los resultados de la evaluación estén vinculados al pago -la idea clave es tener un sistema que tenga semejanza al mercado, a más rendimiento, más pago.
También, es necesario tener un sistema de disciplina progresiva, capacitación y desarrollo de empleados, apuntado a resolver sus deficiencias, a través de la evaluación: lo que se persigue es tener éxito. La idea es un sistema en el que los empleados sean premiados y tengan incentivos para el desarrollo de sus capacidades.
Además hay otro elemento clave en el sistema norteamericana que es la transparencia en la información sobre el servicio publico. Es importante para crear una imagen buena, pues sin ella no se pueden atraer a los mejores recursos humanos al servicio civil. Esto implica que toda la información sobre el rendimiento y productividad de las agencias públicas debe llegar, o por lo menos, estar disponible al público.
Con todo, la reestructuración del servicio público no es suficiente para convertirse en un servicio civil de carrera, que persiga una estrategia de políticas eficientes para el Estado.