Congreso aprueba ley de negociación colectiva en el sector público

Ley promueve que los trabajadores estatales puedan negociar el incremento de sus salarios. Fue aprobada en primera votación y exonerada de la segunda.

Negociación. Imagen: https://www.diariodelexportador.com/2017/04/introduccion-la-negociacion.html

El Pleno del Congreso aprobó en primera votación y exoneró de la segunda el dictamen que propone aprobar una Ley de negociación colectiva en el sector estatal, esto con el objetivo de que los trabajadores puedan negociar con el Estado sus incrementos salariales.

El dictamen -que recoge iniciativas de los partidos Alianza para el Progreso, Frente Amplio, Acción Popular y Fuerza Popular- propone derogar el Decreto Legislativo 1442, que creaba la planilla única de pago del sector público, el cual, según los miembros del Legislativo, bloquea, restringe y suspende la negociación colectiva en el Estado.

El proyecto fue aprobado casi a las 11:00 p.m. del jueves 18 de octubre con 63 votos a favor, cero en contra y 7 abstenciones. Luego de ser sometidas a voto varias otras iniciativas legislativas, fue exonerada de la segunda votación faltando unos minutos para el cierre de la sesión.

POSTURA DEL EJECUTIVO

El dictamen estuvo en la agenda del Pleno del Congreso durante varias semanas, por lo que fue debatido en diversas ocasiones en mesas de trabajo. En este contexto, el Ministerio de Economía y Finanzas (MEF) afirmó reiteradas veces que tal decreto no regula la negociación colectiva.

“(El decreto) resulta aplicable a las acciones en materia remunerativa que unilateralmente pudieran desarrollar las entidades a partir de su vigencia y en adelante y no afecta en modo alguno los derechos otorgados mediante normas legales con rango de ley, que vienen percibiendo los trabajadores, ni tiene relación con la negociación colectiva en el sector público, lo que será materia de una ley distinta, de acuerdo con el mandato del TC”, explicó en un comunicado publicado.

El titular del MEF, Carlos Oliva, reiteró durante estos debates que la negociación colectiva será regulada vía proyecto de ley, para ser debatido y aprobado por el Congreso.

LA CONTRAPROPUESTA

La ley aprobada se contrapone al Decreto Legislativo Nº 1442, derogado hace unas semanas. Este tenía por objeto establecer disposiciones sobre la Gestión Fiscal de los Recursos Humanos a fin de contribuir a la asignación y utilización eficiente de los fondos públicos destinados a los ingresos correspondientes a los recursos humanos del Sector Público. Se buscaba tener claro cuánto gana cada trabajador del Estado y que el MEF sea quien lidere este esfuerzo.

Con ello, se buscaba garantizar la transparencia, legalidad, eficiencia, eficacia, sostenibilidad y responsabilidad fiscal, a fin de contar con información confiable sobre la inversión del Estado en los ingresos de personal –remuneraciones y pensiones– en el sector público, sin afectar los derechos de los trabajadores.

En: elcomercio

Absentee and Early Voting (USA)

La mayoria de los estados en USA tienen un método para que un votante elegible pueda emitir su voto antes del día de las elecciones. En 13 estados, el voto anticipado no esta disponible y una excusa o justificación es necesaria para solicitar una cédula para poder votar en ausencia.

Los estados pueden optar por proporcionar tres vías para que los votantes puedan votar antes del día de las elecciones:

  1. Voto Anticipado: En 37 estados (incluyendo 3 envian las cedulas por correo a todos los votantes) y el Distrito de Columbia, cualquier votante calificado puede emitir su voto en persona durante un período de tiempo designado antes del día de la elección. No se requiere excusa o justificación.
  2. Voto Ausente: Todos los estados envían una cédula de votación en ausencia a los votantes que la hayan solicitado. El votante puede devolver la boleta por correo o en persona. En 20 estados, se requiere una justificación, mientras que 27 estados y el Distrito de Columbia permiten que cualquier votante cualificado vote en ausencia sin ofrecer una justificación o excusa. Algunos estados ofrecen una lista permanente de boletas de votante ausente: una vez que un votante solicite que se le agregue a la lista, recibirá automáticamente una boleta de votante ausente para todas las futuras elecciones.
  3. Voto por Correo: Se envía automáticamente y por correo una cédula a cada votante elegible (no se requiere ninguna solicitud o aplicación). Los sitios de votación para voto físico también pueden estar disponibles para los votantes que deseen votar en persona y brindar servicios adicionales a los votantes. Tres estados envían cédulas por correo a todos los votantes elegibles para cada elección. Otros estados pueden proporcionar esta opción para algunos tipos de elecciones.

Desplácese por el siguiente mapa para obtener detalles de estado por estado.

Image: http://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/absentee-and-early-voting.aspx

Mas informacion en: NCSL – ABSENTEE AND EARLY VOTING

A New, More Rigorous Study Confirms: The More You Use Facebook, the Worse You Feel

By Holly B. Shakya / Nicholas A. Christakis
April 10, 2017

Video: Funny Or Die

The average Facebook user spends almost an hour on the site every day, according to data provided by the company last year. A Deloitte survey found that for many smartphone users, checking social media apps are the first thing they do in the morning – often before even getting out of bed. Of course, social interaction is a healthy and necessary part of human existence. Thousands of studies have concluded that most human beings thrive when they have strong, positive relationships with other human beings.

The challenge is that most of the work on social interaction has been conducted using “real world,” face-to-face social networks, in contrast to the types of online relationships that are increasingly common. So, while we know that old-fashioned social interaction is healthy, what about social interaction that is completely mediated through an electronic screen? When you wake up in the morning and tap on that little blue icon, what impact does it have on you?

Prior research has shown that the use of social media may detract from face-to-face relationships, reduce investment in meaningful activities, increase sedentary behavior by encouraging more screen time, lead to internet addiction, and erode self-esteem through unfavorable social comparison. Self-comparison can be a strong influence on human behavior, and because people tend to display the most positive aspects of their lives on social media, it is possible for an individual to believe that their own life compares negatively to what they see presented by others. But some skeptics have wondered if perhaps people with lower well-being are more likely to use social media, rather than social media causing lower well-being. Moreover, other studies have found that social media use has a positive impact on well-being through increased social support and reinforcement of real world relationships.

We wanted to get a clearer picture of the relationship between social media use and well-being. In our study, we used three waves of data from 5,208 adults from a national longitudinal panel maintained by the Gallup organization, coupled with several different measures of Facebook usage, to see how well-being changed over time in association with Facebook use. Our measures of well-being included life satisfaction, self-reported mental health, self-reported physical health, and body-mass index (BMI). Our measures of Facebook use included liking others’ posts, creating one’s own posts, and clicking on links. We also had measures of respondents’ real-world social networks. In each wave, respondents were asked to name up to four friends with whom they discuss important matters and up to four friends with whom they spend their free time, so that each participant could name up to a total of eight unique individuals.

Our approach had three strengths that set it apart from most of the previous work on the topic. First, we had three waves of data for many of our respondents over a period of two years. This allowed us to track how changes in social media use were associated with changes in well-being. Most studies done to date only use one period of data, limiting interpretations of conclusions to simple associations. Second, we had objective measures of Facebook use, pulled directly from participants’ Facebook accounts, rather than measures based on a person’s self-report. Third, in addition to the Facebook data, we had information regarding the respondents’ real-world social networks, which would allow us to directly compare the two influences (face-to-face networks and online interactions). Of course, our study has limitations too, including that we could not be certain about how fully representative it was because not everyone in the Gallup sample allowed us access to their Facebook data.

Overall, our results showed that, while real-world social networks were positively associated with overall well-being, the use of Facebook was negatively associated with overall well-being. These results were particularly strong for mental health; most measures of Facebook use in one year predicted a decrease in mental health in a later year. We found consistently that both liking others’ content and clicking links significantly predicted a subsequent reduction in self-reported physical health, mental health, and life satisfaction.

Our models included measures of real-world networks and adjusted for baseline Facebook use. When we accounted for a person’s level of initial well-being, initial real-world networks, and initial level of Facebook use, increased use of Facebook was still associated with a likelihood of diminished future well-being. This provides some evidence that the association between Facebook use and compromised well-being is a dynamic process.

Although we can show that Facebook use seems to lead to diminished well-being, we cannot definitively say how that occurs. We did not see much difference between the three types of activity we measured — liking, posting, and clicking links, (although liking and clicking were more consistently significant) — and the impact on the user. This was interesting, because while we expected that “liking” other people’s content would be more likely to lead to negative self-comparisons and thus decreases in well-being, updating one’s own status and clicking links seemed to have a similar effect (although the nature of status updates can ostensibly be the result of social comparison-tailoring your own Facebook image based on how others will perceive it). Overall our results suggests that well-being declines are also matter of quantity of use rather than only quality of use. If this is the case, our results contrast with previousresearch arguing that the quantity of social media interaction is irrelevant, and that only the quality of those interactions matter.

These results then may be relevant for other forms of social media. While many platforms expose the user to the sort of polished profiles of others that can lead to negative self-comparison, the issue of quantity of usage will be an issue for any social media platform. While screen time in general can be problematic, the tricky thing about social media is that while we are using it, we get the impression that we are engaging in meaningful social interaction. Our results suggest that the nature and quality of this sort of connection is no substitute for the real world interaction we need for a healthy life.

The full story when it comes to online social media use is surely complex. Exposure to the carefully curated images from others’ lives leads to negative self-comparison, and the sheer quantity of social media interaction may detract from more meaningful real-life experiences. What seems quite clear, however, is that online social interactions are no substitute for the real thing.

In: hbr

Video: RightNow Media

Nikki Haley Resigns As U.N. Ambassador

Trump and Nikki Haley. Image: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/17/world/americas/nikki-haley-un-trump.html

Nikki Haley has resigned as the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations.

It is not immediately clear what prompted the move. She informed her staff Tuesday, NPR’s Michele Kelemen reports. Haley is scheduled to appear with President Trump at the Oval Office Tuesday morning.

Haley, the former governor of South Carolina, has been a fierce advocate for Trump’s policies at the U.N.

“I proudly serve in this administration, and I enthusiastically support most of its decisions and the direction it is taking the country,” Haley wrote in The Washington Post last month, after The New York Times published an anonymous op-ed critical of the Trump administration. “But I don’t agree with the president on everything.”

In: npr

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