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Miguel Angel Molla Madueño Psicólogo clínico, MA -Logoterapeuta acreditado Website: https://logored.center/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/identidad.existencia Email: migmolla@gmail.com https://miguel-psicoterapia.blogspot.com/

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Conferencia: Atención Pastoral Durante las Transiciones de la Vida: Reconciliarse Con el Pasado. Prof. Dra Elisabeth Lukas. 

Versión breve traducida al español por Miguel Angel Molla, Logoterapeuta, con permiso de los autores y traductores.

RESUMEN

La presentación de la Prof. Dra. Elisabeth Lukas en la Universidad Católica Privada de Linz, organizada por la Prof. Dra. Klara-Antonia Csiszar, abordó temas relacionados con la búsqueda de una vida significativa incluso en situaciones difíciles e inalterables.

La Dr. Lukas destacó la importancia de adoptar un concepto positivo del tiempo, donde el futuro se percibe como una fuente de oportunidades y posibilidades.

Al explicar su teoría, la Dra. Lukas enfatizó que cada decisión que tomamos actualiza un potencial entre muchos y contribuye a dar forma a nuestra realidad. Señaló que incluso en situaciones pasadas difíciles, como mencionó Frankl, todavía hay oportunidades para actualizar el significado y encontrar sentido en la vida.

Utilizando ejemplos clínicos, el Dr. Lukas ilustró cómo esta teoría se aplica en la pastoral, especialmente en el proceso de reconciliación con el pasado. Comparó este proceso con la contemplación de una cadena montañosa, donde se consideran los aspectos positivos y negativos de la vida, se aceptan y perdonan los momentos difíciles, y finalmente se reflexiona sobre las posibilidades de significado que aún quedan por explorar.

Su enfoque en encontrar significado y sentido en todas las etapas de la vida resonó profundamente y proporcionó una perspectiva inspiradora para aquellos que buscan orientación en tiempos difíciles.

Hace años, la Dra. Lukas trabajó en investigar y validar su tesis doctoral que es de una principal importancia en Logoterapia y Análisis Existencial (LTEA) y es fascinante. Así creó el instrumento para validar la Logoterapia el Logo-test, fue respaldada por su experiencia personal y su formación bajo la tutela de Viktor Frankl, lo que le otorgó autoridad y relevancia como experta internacional. Ella ha enseñado en más de cincuenta universidades de todo el mundo.  (Logo-test publicado por ella en un Capítulo del libro La Voluntad de Sentido, Frankl V. Herder p254)

La idea de que el sentido y el significado en la vida están intrínsecamente vinculados con la felicidad y la capacidad de enfrentar el sufrimiento es un tema fundamental en la psicología existencial.

Explorar cómo la percepción de significado puede influir en la satisfacción con la vida, la capacidad para enfrentar obstáculos y la resiliencia frente a las dificultades es crucial para comprender la salud mental desde una perspectiva más holística. La noción de que el sentido proporciona una especie de “amortiguador” emocional que permite a las personas atravesar los desafíos con mayor fortaleza es una idea poderosa.

Es interesante destacar cómo su investigación no solo se centra en la felicidad y la satisfacción, sino también en la capacidad de sufrir y enfrentar las dificultades. Esta perspectiva ampliada sobre la salud mental y el bienestar humano es invaluable para el campo de la psicología.

Fuente:

Conferencia: Atención Pastoral Durante las Transiciones de la Vida: Reconciliarse Con el Pasado. Prof. Dra. Elisabeth Lukas

Conferencia dictada en Universidad Católica Privada, Linz, Austria

Organizado por: Prof. Dra. Klara-Antonia Csiszar

Resumen: Viktoria Puchner (KU-Linz)

Transcrito y traducido del alemán original al inglés por:

Dra. Maria Marshall, OTTAWA INSTITUTE OF LOGOTHERAPY https://logotherapy.ca/

Pastoral Care during Life Transitions: Reconciling with the Past

Traducción al español por Miguel Angel Molla Madueño
Psicólogo clínico, MA -Logoterapeuta acreditado.

Texto completo de la traducción en inglés publicado por la Dra. María Marshall.

PASTORAL CARE DURING LIFE TRANSITIONS: RECONCILING WITH THE PAST

Presented by: Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Lukas

Location: Catholic Private University, Linz, Austria

Organized by: Prof. Dr. Klara-Antonia Csiszar

Abstract: Viktoria Puchner (KU-Linz)

Transcribed and translated from the original German into English by: Prof. Dr. Maria Marshall, February 28, 2024

[Posted with permission from Prof. Dr. Klara-Antonia Csiszar and Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Lukas]

Abstract: Prof. Dr. Lukas’ presentation was held on January 18, 2024, at the Catholic Private University of Linz, organized by Prof. Dr. Klara-Antonia Csiszar. After referring to the findings of her dissertation research, which validated that that a meaningful life is associated with a successful life, Dr. Lukas raised the question how one can accompany people who are facing unalterable, difficult situations where the past is often seen as unalterable and evaluated as negative. With a positive time-concept, she clarified that time flows from the future into the present and to the past. She illustrated those opportunities in the future open many possibilities. With each decision, one decides for and actualizes a potential, among many, and brings it into reality. Reality always remains true and stays in the past. It makes up the identity of a person. Paraphrasing Frankl, she stated that, “In the past everything is actualized.”  The realm of values spans over the possibilities and realities. Actualizing poor possibilities lads to a poor reality, and vice versa, actualizing worthwhile possibilities leads to a worthwhile reality. Through several clinical examples, Dr. Lukas illustrates how one uses this theory in pastoral care, where one needs to reconcile with the past. In this process, as if observing a mountain-range, one first considers the “peaks” and the “positives.” These can be contemplated and pointed out. Next, one considers the “valleys” which can be grieved, accepted, and forgiven. Finally, the question arises: “What is yet left to be done?”  Meaning possibilities can be plentiful, whether one is a young person, elderly, terminally ill, or dying.

Dr. Lukas provided several illustrations from her practice and personal experience which reaches back to the time when she was a student of Viktor Frankl. Her presentation was highly insightful and relevant for this audience.

Prof. Dr. Csiszar: Esteemed Ladies and Gentlemen. Greetings and welcome to everyone. My students have been asking me to not only talk about logotherapy but to invite Dr. Lukas, the foremost proponent of logotherapy. Today, we have the honor of welcoming her here and I greet her in name of the Catholic Private University of Linz.

Dr. Lukas was born in Vienna. As a student she developed an interest in Logotherapy and Existential Analysis (LTEA). She studied with Dr. Frankl.  Today, she is still active in this area and has taught at more than fifty universities worldwide. She developed a curriculum for LTEA as we know it today which you can study if you are interested in LTEA, since it is highly relevant for counselors and pastoral workers to have familiarity with it. Having said this, Dr. Lukas, we are all ears and hearts, and ready to listen to you.

Prof Dr. Lukas: It is my pleasure and honor to be with you here. I want to make a few comments about Logotherapy that apply to the theme of this presentation. As a young psychology student, in 1968, I decided to write my PhD dissertation to validate the main thesis of LTEA. The main thesis is that that a person who sees meaning will be, on the one hand, felicitous, and on the other hand, capable of suffering. On the one hand, happy, satisfied with life, dedicated to a task or a cause, and less bothered by obstacles and difficulties when they arise. On the other hand, who see meaning will have an increased ability to suffer, to tolerate frustration, to jump over difficulties, and to be courageous in the face of life’s demands. Both of these: satisfaction, and steadfastness–but not because of self-esteem and confidence, but because of the feeling of value in life–and the capacity to handle suffering, are the signs of good mental health. The opposite applies as well: one can be doing little and sink into an existential frustration seeing his or her existence as meaningless, in which case there is less vitality, and one loses the capacity to handle difficulties, which makes one prone to a mental crisis. This is the grand thesis that wanted to validate, and to this end, I interviewed 1000 people: “Do you see meaning in life, and if “yes,” what are the meaningful elements that you would name?” The answers were organized into a protocol from which the contents that pointed to areas of meaning were derived. From these results, I developed a test, the Logotest, with the aim to measure how much meaning one can see in life. If one has a lot of contents, meaning contents, one feels one has possibilities for many meaningful endeavors. However, if one has diminished interest in these contents, one has less possibility for actualizing meaning capacities.

With 340 people tested, I correlated the results with a projective test which flagged up signs and the likelihood of mental illness, such as anxiety, addictions, psychopathy, etc. In this way, I obtained two data sets: high or low meaning orientation and high and low mental stability. In 1970, I processed these results at the U of Vienna was processed and established a correlation. The findings were interesting. Correlation was significant up to 99 percent likelihood that meaning in life influences mental stability. Higher scores on the Logotest were associated with more mental stability and vice versa. My supervisor was very impressed.

Since then, I have worked as a psychotherapist for over 30 years. I had a private clinic where we worked as a team and saw about 300 people each year. At the end of year, we contacted all of our patients and asked for their feedback. Year after year, our success rate was about 70, or 73 percent. In most cases, success rates are around 50 percent and sometimes 60 percent. We established that there was a higher success rate when there was constructive readiness and cooperation with our patients, and we found that without this cooperation and readiness, effects would not be so high. So, we concluded that a lot depends on the willingness to cooperate and the rapport, the therapeutic alliance that one can build with patients.

So, I do not wish that you think that logotherapy is an “exotic” therapy, because it is a very efficient method based on a valid and solid anthropological model. We cannot heal everyone, and there are some boundaries. On this note, we need to be mindful of our own boundaries and our own finiteness and transitoriness.

Psychotherapy pays a lot of attention and assigns a great role to past childhood experiences, but I teel you, honestly, for ten years you can have a patient lying on a sofa complaining about their childhood, and you cannot give them a new childhood. When it was bad, it was bad. When it was sad, it was sad. The past cannot be changed. The facts you cannot change. If you can recover from a poor childhood, or after poor experiences, is another question. And then there is the awareness of death. The awareness that we are all going to die. Ladies and gentlemen, none of us are excepted from death. So, the question that Frankl posed was: How can you help people to deal with finality and transitoriness? How can you help them face the past, in view of finality and transitoriness? My aim is to present a few thoughts that I hope may be helpful.

Let’s begin with Frankl’s model of the passing of time. This model was presented at several international universities where Frankl taught. If I asked people, which way does time flows, many would say that it passes into the future. This is not so. Time passes, from the future into the present and into the past. In this illustration [drawing on the board], we have future, present, and past. The future is all what is still possible. All begins with a possibility. It is as if a cocoon opens. Or when a seed is planted. What was planted will grow. The tree was a possibility. If there had not been a possibility for it to grow, it could not have become a reality. Everything starts with a possibility.

This afternoon was a piece of possibility for you. You had different possibilities. It was a piece of the future for you, for you had different options available: you could either come here, or many other things you could have done; go to a pool, ski, or talk to a friend, or to stay at home and read a book. I also had many different possibilities and out of this pool, we have chosen the same one, you and I, for you and I chose the possibility of being here. Now we are in the present reality, and out of all these possibilities of the future, we put this possibility into the past through the present. We actualized this choice of being here, we chose it, and we “dragged” [placed it by pulling through] it into the past. In the next minutes it will be already a reality that we were all here and by the evening, it will be already a piece of the past. Reality remains a piece of life that we lived. I may die tomorrow, but this remains; that today, I was here. The reality was that I was here and now belongs to my past. Death does not take it away.

What happens with the other possibilities? They remain in the realm of possibilities in the future for a while. In two weeks, in one week, God willing. Young people have a lot of possibilities.

But if one died tonight, there would be no more possibilities left in the future. Not to go skiing, or to go to a pool, or to talk to a friend. Some possibilities remain for a while in the future, and they can still be actualized, at a later point. However, they are in a “risky zone.” They are in a “risky zone” because they may be possible to still actualize. Only what we already actualized stays forever. It becomes eternalized – as Frankl said. What we did not choose, is at risk of disappearing, and will disappear, or we may forfeit them, if they do not get actualized. This loss is a loss forever. What we choose and actualize remains forever and what we fail to actualize remains not actualized forever.

Therefore, Frankl spoke of this feeling, a horror of vacuum, the dreaded feeling of the responsibility to choose and to actualize the right choice. We always stand at a door, and we “drag” the possibilities through, and we choose one and this one that we change from possibility is saved into eternity. The rest are in a risky zone area and may be lost. Frankl said that in the past, everything was safely stored, and cannot be taken away. It is protected, yes; but it is also true that what we didn’t actualize is in the risky area and can be lost.

This is the area of possibilities in the future. We have many choices. Philosophically, these possibilities are not yet “being” they are just “becoming.” But when they are actualized, they become reality. Currently, they are only in a state of “prelude of being,” and that is the precondition of being. Either something becomes reality, and eternal, or it becomes nothing, forever.

Consider a couple who have the possibility of having a child in the future. When they do not choose this possibility, it is lost forever. The choice becomes nothing, and no child will ever come to life from this couple.  Alternatively, if they decide to have a child, a who child comes into life, is a possibility. Unless they make a different possibility, such as through an abortion, the child never goes back into nothingness. There can be a possibility that the couple had a child and this child died. Death can not detract from the reality. Time passes only one way, and that is, into the past. We cannot go back and change reality. Just like one cannot change reality if a tree is struck down by lightning. There was a tree there, until it was struck by lightning and burned.

This is another aspect that I want to illustrate: A child who was beaten, is in the past. One cannot go back to the past, but in the future, there are still possibilities. You can blame the child, or ignore the child, but you cannot take back the facts. Or, when a child trusted you, and you earned their trust, this fact cannot be taken away, even if you or the child forget about it. Even if no one knows about it, it was still there.  So, you see, reality has a timeless ethos. Philosophically, the future is the area of what could be, and what should be. In a timeless ethos, when what was in the future becomes the past, when a nice possibility becomes reality, it will be a nice past. But if a not nice possibility was actualized, it remains a not nice act in the past.

Thus, we can see the reality of a person as if it was transparent:  Here is a cornfield (nice possibilities) and here we have some weeds (not nice possibilities). And there is a door, and this is the filter that decides what goes into the granary. The person is the gatekeeper. The possibilities are transitory, but what we actualize, or we do not actualize, remains a reality.

Death cannot rob us from the “grains.” Death can only destroy the future and its possibilities, but it cannot destroy what was already safely stored in the “granaries” of the past. Death has limits. It cannot affect the past. This is a wonderful thought, because death cannot alter what one already managed to accomplish.

What happens in death? Death closes the door, but it closes the door behind us. “What we are, we become at the moment of our death,” said Frankl. What we have lived is what we are, and our identity. Also, Frankl stated that the way each person lived belongs to their identity: “Each person is their own heaven, or hell,” which refers to what they have done and the way they chose to live.

Here, if you wish, you could make a bridge to a thought in Christianity: “[Jesus said], I am the way, and the truth, and the life” (John 14:6).  Life as a whole becomes reality, and it is an eternal reality.

Thus, what we actualize counts. I want to illustrate this concept with a personal example. I was blessed with forty-four years of happy marriage. My husband and I never had a real fight, we solved all our problems together. In my life, death can’t rob me, not even an hour, or a minute, from these forty-four years, it can’t detract from its quality– if it was happy, or sad–or of its quantity. A treasure stays in my life. Losing my partner (as I have) is an immense suffering. It is a suffering that is so great that it feels inexpressible. But next to grief, is the gift of the forty- four years we had together and thankfulness for this gift. This thankfulness for what I lived balances out the great suffering of my husband’s death. I am, as if accompanied by two voices. The one whispers: “Your loss is great.” The other one says: “You had something wonderful.” This saves me from doubt and gives me confidence that the forty-four years are saved.

Another story related to the cornfield which I want to share with you is also a personal example. Since the 1980s, I have written books. I always dedicated them to someone dear or close to me. In the 90s I dedicated them to my parents-in-law. They took me into their family, and I wanted to make them happy. We did not see them too often and as I became busy producing one book after the other, I have all forgotten about the one that I dedicated especially to them. I thought nothing of it, I kept procrastinating and procrastinating, until one day, they passed away. Their death robbed me of this possibility forever. Therefore, I tell you, every possibility is “between the teeth” of death. Only you can actualize it and put in into past so that it remains eternal. So if there is a nice possibility, such as to do something for someone, or to heal the world, it is not a good idea to procrastinate, because death can rob us of it.

We have to establish one more fact: Life is not full of only nice possibilities. There are accidents, misfortunes, unhappiness, failures, and limitations. When Frankl was in California, he had a presentation scheduled, but was called to a talk at San Quentin prison. Many of the inmates were there because they committed a murder. On of them was going to be executed the following day.  This man was Mr. Mitchell, and when he heard that Frankl was in town, he wanted to talk to him. Frankl cancelled everything on his schedule to meet Mr. Mitchel. He could not save him from death, but he said to him: “Mr. Mitchell, I do not want to presume, but I suppose, and I hope that if anyone who has lived in the shadow of the gas chambers for two years, I have the ability to understand your situation. And I want to share with you that while I was in the shadow of the gas chambers, I never doubted that I could do something meaningful even in the last a few minutes of my life. This is the same for you. Mr. Mitchell. During this night, you can still rise to a higher level of consciousness and think of what a good way for you could be, and despite many failures, you can still grow, and glow over the men and the conditions and die as a much better man then the way you lived. Use this night to rise above yourself.” Later it was said that Mr. Mitchell had his last confession and that he was peaceful and serene before his death.

A not as dramatic illustration comes from my practice. I was talking to an older man who did not have too much time to live. He knew that after this death, his family will have financial losses that they would have to pay for years. He wanted to talk to me. I asked him what kind of profession he had, just to get to know him a bit better. He was a musician and talked about the concerts he had and the instruments that he played. From my knowledge of music, I reflected and said to him that all music pieces have some dissonant notes but all composers of classical music or any kind of music, always try at the end to have a great ending where all the melody comes together and there is a resounding finale. This is one of the tricks of composing music, to bring the piece to grand finale.  So, when he agreed, I continued, “Show your best side to your wife and to your family and be forgiving and thankful for what she has done for you, and to the kids, you can say to them, do it better that your old father, and that is how you can bring everything to a great finale.” And he said, “Yes, that is what I want, a bit of a better future.”

I want to show you how we can accompany people in extreme situations and what strategies we have in doing so. In limit-situations, it is like this: we rely on a positive concept of the flow of time. People have a substantial past, or a piece of the past, the present, and a future that is still there. So, they still have some time before them. We counsel or accompany–against the direction of the flow of time. Time always flows from the future into the past. How do we do this? By helping people reconcile with their past so that they can handle the future more meaningfully. When they can reconcile with their past, they can imagine the present. They can have hope for the future. Thus, when we counsel them, first, there is the view back to the past.

We look back into the past to establish what is there. Most important about the view back is to notice the “peaks to see what was happy, and valuable, and to bring this to awareness and consciousness, because how we humans are created, we always remember negatives more than positives. So, we encourage people to pay attention to it. With a simple example: when you are on a hike you admire the flowers that grow in the valley, but if you have blisters on your toe while on that hike, you ignore the flowers and tend the wound right away. This is why it is important to point to the peaks and to what were the peak experiences of life. Frankl used a great metaphor from mountain climbing: When you describe mountain ranges, you always talk about the heights, the tallest peak; no one talks about the smaller hills or the valleys. It’s the tallest peak that makes the mountain so special. Like the Himalayas: they have taller and smaller peaks, yet, what is most interesting is the tallest peak. There is one other metaphor from Frankl, this one from the Dolomites. In the Dolomites, when the sun sets, its rays still illuminate the highest peaks in hues of beautiful orange, pink, and red. In the valleys, the sun is already gone, but the peaks have this wonderful glow. As one descends in the valley, one may look back one last time to see the peaks and to, using the metaphor, show to people:” You see, it is what you achieved, these were nice experiences, gifts, or blessings.” Those are the peaks, and whoever looks for those will find them.

I once spoke with young man, who was maybe 18, or 19, maybe even twenty years old. His life story was so desolate that it was striking. He was taken away from his mother because she became incapable of parenting him, and went from foster home to foster home, while his father was in prison. No one wanted him. He did not complete school, and his life was one catastrophe after another. His current foster father brought him to my clinic to talk with him because he had bleak prospects. As I was listening to him, there was nothing in his words but sadness. I was not ready to give up and looked to find at least one peak. There must be something, still something that was good. Finally, I asked him, “Tell me, have you ever had something that you really liked?” – I did not ask if there was someone who ever liked him, or accepted him, but if there was ever something that he possessed and that he liked. “The dog of my aunt.” –“The dog of the aunt!”–There was one piece of hope. He was not allowed to have dogs while in foster care. The dog he used to like died a long time ago. His aunt also passed on. So, I went with this young man to a dog shelter. Since he was spending time with the dogs, I was hoping he would find one there and make a connection. He did find a dog that was also tossed out. He took care of this dog and went for walks with him. The time passed, he stayed at the shelter, and managed to complete a course in dog grooming. The dog that he adopted was given to him as a gift, and eventually, he managed to build a modest but decent life.  –One must look and believe.  There is much more to people than what their circumstances may make it look like, and what one comes into the world with.

In looking back, the main question is: “Is there something in the present that I can do about the past?” If I made a mistake, and was mean to someone, can I still reconcile with them or be on good terms? –The task is to look in the present and to notice the possibilities.

Frankl wrote about the example of a dying woman, Ms. Linek. They discussed the peak experiences that she experienced. She was a maid for a rich family in Prague and yes, some of the experiences she had were very beautiful. The lady concluded her reminiscence with the words that “all this will end.”  To which Frankl remarked that it is so, but it is also true that all these experiences remain in the past. Frankl pointed out that there were difficult times as well which she went through, but she suffered them with courage. To which Ms. Linek replied that she saw her suffering as “punishment from God.” Frankl then questioned her if it can be that the times that were difficult were like a test?  “And you managed well. So, look, you have nice experiences, and difficulties which you handled with courage, and if this was a test, I can only congratulate you for your actions were like a monument.” “My life was a monument,” repeated Ms. Linek. “My life was monument, so the Professor said,” Ms. Linek repeated, even in her last hours of life.

As we mentioned, the negatives are more readily noticed than the positives. When we function well, we take for granted that we are well. But, unless I am mistaken, I believe that we all, in some way, get too little praise, and too much critique for what we have managed to accomplish. When we are counseling someone, we can be placeholder for that attention and recognition that is lacking, as long as it is due. For what people really brought into life made a difference. So, when Frankl looked at the past, he congratulated Ms. Linek.

Another example was a nurse, who was very kind to her patients. Frankl was the Director of the Policlinic where this nurse used to work prior to her diagnosis of cancer. She expressed to Frankl that since her illness, she was feeling useless. “I am not useful to the patients,” she said. “What,” replied Frankl, “with that statement you are making an injustice to all the bedridden patients here, don’t you think?” Then he continued, “You can be an example that no one is useless because you can still set a good example to show that, as long as one is alive, one can be a blessing for other people.” The nurse then understood that she could perhaps do something even more for her patients than before, because a good example can be more important than making the beds. She was as useful as ever, even though her job had changed.

So, we do look back, and from there we look to the future at what is still left to do. In the present, when one finds a useful task, that can be a source of strength for the organism to endure until that task is finished. Of course, life can’t be prolonged beyond what is reasonable, but with an effort dedicated to completing a task, sometimes, there is remarkable strength to endure. Frankl gives the example that Goethe was very ill when he wrote Faust, but he wanted to finish it because he knew that no one could finish this task. A week after he completed his work, he died. Many times, when people see an important task, they receive the gift of time to finish that task.

All this is not easy, because, on the one hand, one is encouraged to says “yes” to a task, but on the other hand, the task cannot be defined by the therapist. One can only help to find what, in the name of logos, is waiting for this person, yet. In this, there is singularity and uniqueness: No one in the world can replace this person in the completion of their singular task.

There is an example which shocked me: I had an institute near Munich. We also lived there, and my husband, Gerhard, sent me patients from time to time, when he thought that I could help them. Once, he sent me a “top” manager. This man said to me that medically, he was “finished with his treatment:” he had a tumor that was inoperable with metastasis. He had little time to live. An engineer by profession, he positive thinking and stated that he is “done with” trusting “charlatans.” He was here to explore some psychological tools that I could give him to help himself and to get better. The meeting went very poorly because he kept insisting that he was here to learn about psychological tools to recover, while I tried to help him to say goodbye to life, which he did not want to hear about.  I asked what the most important peaks in his life were, and he kept enumerating all the great achievements of his company and the potential that it still had.  He had many, many ideas about what the company could still achieve, the consequences, and ended his part by telling me that he wants to recover so that he can keep leading it. He did not want to hear a word about his impending death. He worked so hard; I asked him if he had any other interests. “Yes,” he said, “I was on the high seas, and been to places where young sailors cannot go, and I thought that maybe I should like to write about how one maneuvers in difficult situations, for the younger generations.” I thought that was a good idea, and I encouraged him by saying, “I like that, and when you have time, certainly, write about that.” To which he replied, “Of course, I will write about it when I get healthy.” At the end, I asked him, since we talked so much about his work, and sailing, if he had any time for his family.  “No,” he said, “this was valley.” He had two sons, one was already an adult, the other was 15. They went for a holiday in Greece, then to New York. In Greece they wanted to buy a piece of art, but it was not for sale. So, he said to his younger son, “You can make this yourself at home,” but “nothing came of it.”  I said to him, “Look, since you are not active in the company, you can still have time to talk to your son.” Upon which he replied: “I am not yet dead, I will still have time to work, and I will be well.” Then he stood up, looked me in the eye and stated, “I see that you cannot help me. I was wasting my time. I did not find here what I was looking for.” With that, he left, and closed the door behind him.

This can happen in psychotherapy.  But I thought that something was not adding up exactly. The story has a positive ending, though. The family doctor phoned me and told me that this man passed away. “He probably had a difficult death,” I guessed. But I was wrong. “We all thought it was rather remarkable,” said the family doctor, “As if he had changed toward the end.  He had and finished a book, he played a musical instrument with his younger son, and at the end, had said his goodbyes, and peacefully fell asleep, surrounded by his family.” –Can you imagine how happy I was when I heard this from the doctor. He was not happy with me, but thanks to his own efforts, he managed to at the end, bring the last shacks of corn into the “granary.”

Psychotherapy is an artwork like no other. Much of our work is routine, repetitions, but sometimes there are special moments of contact, healing moments, that have to do with blessings and wonders. This last task, a different attitude, does not always have to do with work or action.  Sometimes, the change of attitude can mean a more peaceful attitude, which is hard work to achieve.

Frankl wrote about the example of a doctor colleague who sought his help. After a long marriage, his wife passed away. He could not accept this fact. “I can’t do it. Can you help me?” he said. Frankl acknowledged that the marriage of his colleague was indeed a very good one.  “For a bad partner, one does not grieve. But a good marriage, yes, one grieves the end of a good marriage.” He did not deny the blessing of this marriage. Then, Frankl continued to reflect: “The one who dies first, has it better, but the other who is left behind has the pain and they must live in a way, alone. They carry the burden by themselves. Can you see it this,” he turned to his colleague, “if it was good marriage, what would have happened”—and this is logotherapy’s technique of alternating perspectives—”if your wife outlived you, how she would have suffered. See, she was spared from this pain, but at the cost that now you carry it.” “Love is that I suffer, instead of her,” concluded the doctor, and with this motive of love, he could say “Yes, I agree. I can accept the fact that I lost her.”  Any better, it could not have happened.

Psychotherapy needs to be improvised from hour to hour, and from person to person. We can always draw back to the anthropological foundations and then we can continue with the argument.

Sometimes, when I was teaching In the United States, the students brought a real patient and they wanted to know how to apply logotherapy in that case.  “Now what, show us how?” I was not happy about these scenarios because of the large audience that is definitely not the same as in a private office, but I could not refuse either. So, on one occasion, they asked me to see a lady who was terminally ill, and she had tubes of oxygen all around, and my task was to demonstrate a logotherapeutic dialogue. We talked about her past; she had a great family. She was a farmer, and she had many children, grandchildren, nephews, nieces, and they were all diligent, hardworking, and fine people. They had a big farm and she told me all about that. I asked her, “Say, any of your family have any injuries, any illnesses, or anything that makes you concerned?” “None,” she said, “it is only me who is ill, and soon, I will die.”  So, I improvised, and prompted: “Say, if fate gave you a choice that out of all your family who would be the next one affected by a disease, who would you have chosen; your daughter, a nephew, a niece, or who?” Upon which the lady looked at me in disbelief and replied,” Oh, no, no, no. Only me, only me.” “Do I understand that right,” I repeated, “if you had a choice, you would have chosen what life gave?” She confirmed again, “Yes, me and not the others.” And in that minute, the students started to applaud, and the lady, propping herself up taller, said her “yes” to fate.

As we said, one must improvise from hour to hour, and rely on logotherapeutic principles.

In closing, I would like to leave you with a metaphor: Like a mountain range, life is like a roll of film.  I will explain this in a nutshell: Like those old camera rolls, it becomes finished at the time of our death.  Independent of its length, it can have different qualities. In the film, there are these different snapshots that show our life lived. There are some great scenes, and there are some moments of weakness, or mistakes. The hope is that in the end, only the good will count, and nothing else but the good.

One of my students remarked that “God in his greatness surely knows how to handle the minuses,” and can surely mercifully deal with the negatives. Therefore, we need to worry about the negatives, but trust we can still fill the remaining snapshots with positives. The minus are the dark scenes, but the pluses are the “yeses” when we are co-creators. Only we can add the positives, no one else can do it for us. –And if we take the “positives” in this metaphor as “light” …and we add light to the remaining scenes, then the light scenes are literally eternal life, which death can not extinguish.

Prof. Dr. Csiszar: Logotherapy offers several methods that help to reflect on our own lives as well as to help others. This is the reason why pastoral theology cannot be taught without logotherapy.  Thank you for being here, Dr. Lukas, and thank you for your examples which show what a wonderful thing it is to be able to accompany people–even when that can be difficult or disappointing–because we can never know when, at the end, there is a light that shines through.

Thank you very much for your excellent presentation!

 

 

 

 

 

 

obstinación del espíritu

[Visto: 1631 veces]

El corazón tiene razones que el entendimiento no conoce ”

Blaise Pascal

 

El corazón nos permite ver la bondad y la belleza que nos rodea; la dimensión espiritual se nos manifiesta como vivencia ante todo amorosa en su acto perceptivo que en el fondo supone una dimensión emocional, más que intelectual del hombre. Son los surgimientos originarios de los que hablaba Jaspers, o los momentos pico o cumbres de los que hablaba Maslow: la realidad se presenta alguna vez como una manifestación única y total, una epifanía, de deslumbrante belleza transformando el mundo con una alquimia y magia que cuando está presente nos da una felicidad y un sentimiento de plenitud. Ante estos estados se dice que se ha despertado a una nueva realidad de la vida, o que estas experiencias no son de personas especiales sino de aquellos que buscan su ser verdadero y desean despertar.

Según Viktor Frankl, el sentimiento puede llegar a ser mucho más sutil que agudo el intelecto. La dimensión espiritual tiene una naturaleza más amorosa y emocional que intelectual. En otras palabras, la conexión con el significado y el propósito de la vida a menudo se experimenta a un nivel emocional más profundo que a través de procesos puramente racionales. No es la ratio, es intuición, fuerza del corazón y obstinación del espíritu para enfrentar las dificultades puramente psíquicas. Es muchas veces cuando fallan nuestros recursos puramente intelectuales que vemos surgir la fuerza del espíritu. Y esta nos da gran capacidad de enfrentar las dificultades y superarlas.

El crecimiento y la autorrealización van más allá de la resolución de conflictos y traumas, abarcando también la búsqueda de significado y conexión con dimensiones más profundas de la existencia.

En este contexto, Frankl sugiere que la búsqueda de significado está relacionada con la capacidad del individuo para amar, tanto a los demás como a sí mismo. La conexión emocional con los demás y la identificación de un propósito significativo son aspectos clave de la dimensión espiritual, según su perspectiva.

Cada individuo puede interpretar y experimentar su dimensión espiritual de manera única:

Vemos como estos dos aspectos, el de singularidad y peculiaridad, poseen un valor constitutivo en cuanto al sentido de la existencia humana…y hay que reconocer a la filosofía existencialista que haya sabido destacar la existencia del hombre, como algo esencialmente concreto, la de “cada uno”…este algo peculiar y singular, que entraña la apelación a realizar sus posibilidades originales y que no se dan sino una sola vez. (Frankl, V. Psicoanálisis y Existencialismo).

En Resumen hemos tratado de exponer algunas Ideas de Viktor Frankl sobre la dimensión espiritual. Aquí se destacan algunos puntos clave:

  1. Percepción Emocional y Espiritual: Frankl enfatiza que la conexión con la bondad, la belleza y el significado de la vida se experimenta a un nivel emocional y espiritual más profundo que a través de la razón pura. La intuición, la fuerza del corazón y la obstinación del espíritu son elementos cruciales en la comprensión de la trascendencia hacia la comprensión vivencial del sentido y dimensión espiritual de la vida.
  2. La Fuerza del Espíritu: Frankl sugiere que la fuerza del espíritu a menudo se revela cuando los recursos ordinarios o puramente intelectuales parecen fallar. O cuando nos enfrentamos a dificultades inducidas por la complejidad de nuestra mente, cuyos antagonismos y dinámica nos crea problemas (de los que deberíamos autodistanciarnos en lo posible). Esta capacidad para enfrentar y superar las dificultades mediante la fuerza espiritual es un aspecto esencial de la logoterapia de Frankl.
  3. Amor y Conexión Emocional: La búsqueda de significado está intrínsecamente relacionada con la capacidad de amar, tanto a los demás como a uno mismo. La conexión emocional y la identificación de un propósito significativo son consideradas como componentes fundamentales de la dimensión espiritual.
  4. Singularidad y Valor Constitutivo: Frankl destaca la singularidad y peculiaridad de cada individuo como elementos esenciales en el sentido de la persona humana. Reconoce la persona con valor único y específico.
  5. Análisis existencial: Frankl reconoce y valora la contribución de la filosofía existencialista al resaltar la singularidad y la concreción de la existencia humana. En su análisis existencial, destaca la responsabilidad individual y la realización de las posibilidades originales de cada persona cuya realidad está orientada al significado y sentido.

En conjunto, estas ideas de Frankl ofrecen una perspectiva integral sobre la experiencia humana, destacando la importancia de la dimensión espiritual, la búsqueda de significado y la singularidad de cada individuo en su viaje hacia el crecimiento y la autorrealización con la fuerza de trascender hacia algo o alguien más allá de uno mismo, una meta, un proyecto alguien a quien amar.

REFERENCIAS

“Psicosíntesis: Ser Transpersonal” de Roberto Assagioli

Frankl, Viktor. Psicoanálisis y Existencialismo, Herder. p 91

CHAT GPT

emocionalidad

[Visto: 1077 veces]

Se daría en la sociedad actual un aplanamiento afectivo el cual, según algunos analistas, se debería a una serie de factores que comentamos, que afectan la vida emocional y la riqueza de su expresión afectiva. Lo que se relacionaría con una suerte de crisis de identidad en los jóvenes.

La vida afectiva de las personas,  no se ha desarrollado mucho en nuestra época. Los hombres no han aprendido a prestar atención a sus sentimientos, entenderlos y manejarlos de un modo cuidadoso y claro.

Es como si los sentimientos importan muy poco frente al peso de la realidad que urge por otros condicionamientos de la vida.

¿Existe una falta de desarrollo de la vida afectiva en la sociedad actual, comparado con el pasado?

¿Se vivió en el pasado mejores relaciones familiares, de pareja, de amistad,?  ¿Cuáles serían los indicadores que pueden justificar afirmar esto?

Tales factores serían:

Velocidad y exigencias desgastadoras de Vida Moderna:

La vida moderna a menudo se caracteriza por ritmos rápidos y ocupados. Se argumenta que esta rapidez puede dejar poco espacio para la reflexión emocional profunda y para establecer conexiones significativas con los demás.

Expansión de Opciones y Distracciones:

La amplia disponibilidad de opciones y distracciones, como la proliferación de entretenimiento digital, podría llevar a una dispersión de la atención y a una disminución de la intimidad emocional en las relaciones interpersonales. 

(7 horas al día de ocio digital, es el promedio de consumo de los jóvenes)

Aunque las redes sociales ofrecen formas de conexión, también se señala que a veces pueden contribuir a relaciones superficiales. La comparación constante y la búsqueda de validación a través de las redes sociales podrían afectar la autoestima y la autenticidad en las relaciones.

Cambios sociales, político-económicos en la sociedad. Y esto repercute en la cultura en general y en las comunicaciones y su modalidades y expresiones. (Este es un tema muy amplio para abordar ahora), pero  por ejemplo en cuanto a la  Expresión Artística: algunas personas sostienen que la naturaleza de la expresión artística ha cambiado. Argumentan que las formas de expresión contemporáneas pueden reflejar una desconexión emocional o una respuesta a las tensiones y desafíos de la sociedad actual.

Es importante destacar que estas percepciones pueden variar según las experiencias individuales y las perspectivas culturales. No todos estarán de acuerdo con la idea de una falta de desarrollo en la vida afectiva, y hay quienes argumentan que la sociedad actual también presenta oportunidades únicas para la expresión emocional y la conexión significativa.

Se enfatiza la importancia de abordar y comprender la emocionalidad en el desarrollo humano, la educación, la salud, la cultura, la psicoterapia y destaca cómo la falta de conexión con las emociones puede afectar negativamente la calidad de vida, las relaciones interpersonales y la creatividad de las personas.

REFERENCIAS

Chat gpt

Búsqueda de identidad de jóvenes en China actual  https://elpais.com/eps/2023-12-10/jovenes-chinos-en-busca-de-su-propia-identidad.html

En España https://as.com/meristation/2022/04/29/betech/1651249996_653326.html

espiritualidad y religión

[Visto: 357 veces]

Nosotros creemos que temas de espiritualidad y religión, y la búsqueda espiritual como una fuente riquísima de conocimiento del ser humano y su trascendencia.

Ser santo, por tanto, no significa no tener límites, no tener debilidades; al contrario, es precisamente el reconocimiento de la propia fragilidad lo que permite que actúe la gracia (Papa Francisco, cf. n. 50).

Pero existe una diferencia entre espiritualidad y Religión. La Logoterapia tiene una visión espiritual y trascendente del ser humano, pero, al ser una psicoterapia no tiene una opción religiosa, puede ser católico, judío, del islam, y otras religiones.

Espiritualidad y religión se contraponen en ciertos puntos esenciales que conviene tener en cuenta para apreciar la vigencia de una y otra. La religión provee una comunidad de observancia, una regla y una obligación, una verdad …que para muchos sigue brindando cobijo y seguridad. Las llamadas espiritualidades […] rara vez se hacen cargo –como lo hace la religión– de los problemas del mal, el sufrimiento y la muerte.(Eugenio Fizzotti)

Pero justamente la Logoterapia si incluye una visión y un sentido de los problemas existenciales, al abarcar el tema de la Triada trágica: sufrimiento, culpa y muerte,que lleva al ser humano a realizar valores de actitud,cuando el sufrimiento se vuelve inevitable, buscamos encontrar un nuevo sentido asumiendo este sufrimiento como personas existenciales.

REFRENCIAS

Las situaciones límite de Jaspers y la triada trágica de Frankl
Coincidencias y diferencias en torno al lado trágico de la vida desde dos grandes autores un filósofo y un médico.Editorial Academica Espanola.

Revista Humanitas,Universidad Católica de Chile. La Santidad según el Papa Francisco https://www.humanitas.cl/teologia-y-espiritualidad-de-la-iglesia/la-santidad-segun-el-papa-francisco-y-sus-raices-teologicas

Revista Humanitas, Universidad Católica de Chile. Viktor Frankl y las nuevas dimensiones del inconsciente Eugenio Fizzotti

https://issuu.com/humanitas60/docs/82_rev_humanitas_victor_frankl

Fe y trascendencia en jóvenes

[Visto: 1241 veces]

Como parte de los cambios que vivimos en el mundo actual parecería haber una cierta disociación entre el saber de la ciencia y  la fe. Para muchos académicos, las cuestiones que tienen que ver con el ser humano como creyente en una fe, como trascendente y que se cuestiona su existencia, el sentido de su vida, eso pertenece a la Facultad de Teología o a lo sumo a la Filosofía.

Nosotros creemos que temas de espiritualidad y religión, y la búsqueda espiritual como una fuente riquísima de conocimiento del ser humano y su trascendencia.

Existen evidencias científicas de enorme importancia en diversos campos del saber que se acercan los límites del saber científico a un conocimiento espiritual más profundo.

Hace años el creador de la Logoterapia Viktor Frankl, se propuso encontrar evidencias científicas a sus postulados y convicciones teóricas con estudios clínicos, creación de Test validados e investigaciones. Y así fue que el actual Presidente del Instituto Viktor Frankl de Viena, se dedicó e revisar la base de estudios de la APA. Se encontraron más de 600 estudios empíricos y científicamente validados, en todo el mundo, sobre Logoterapia y  estudios sobre psicoterapia orientada al sentido. Un Resumen en fichas de todas estas 600 investigaciones fue presentado en el Libro Investigación Empírica en Logoterapia y Psicoterapia-orientada al Significado. Una bibliografía comentada Alexander Batthyany y David Guttmann. En colaboración con PsycINFO, departamento de la Asociación Psicológica Estadounidense (APA)

Recientemente he publicado un libro que se enfoca en presentar un conjunto de aportes de estudios y bibliografía comentada de investigación de logoterapia y psicoterapia orientada al sentido en países de habla hispana. Estudios que han contribuido a crear tratamientos eficientes y son una revelación, como un tratamiento existencial más humano.

Nosotros creemos que la Religiosidad es una realidad que pertenece a la integralidad de la persona como ser humano y pertenece a la persona humana como ser existencial.

Viktor Frankl escribe su tesis doctoral en filosofía, que hay una religiosidad inconsciente y reprimida, así como Freud señalaba que los impulsos libidinosos están reprimidos en el inconsciente, en el Ello, refiriéndose a algo que no es el yo.

Frankl argumenta que “debemos acentuar enérgicamente, que esta religiosidad inconsciente no es del ello sino del yo, no es psíquica sino espiritual, no es orgánica sino personal, en una palabra, existencial.”

“La persona” es portadora y soporte del organismo, y centro de actos espirituales, y conecta lo psíquico y somático, el cuerpo y la mente y le da  unidad y le permite expresarse. La persona profunda es inconsciente. Frankl,Viktor:  La presencia ignorada de Dios, pp.26.

Es un reto para la academia y la Ciencia en todo el mundo, compartir esfuerzos para que logre avances en las respuestas que nos den un sacudimiento existencial, necesario para despertar del letargo e indiferencia que vivimos los Católicos y que se refleja en muchos jóvenes, por lo que canalizan su búsqueda espiritual hacia otras formas de trascendencia por lo que no es un alejamiento total de la religión.

La Iglesia Católica se renueva gracias al impulse del Papa Francisco, y este año (en Octubre), realizará un Sínodo de gran importancia para estudiar cambios de una renovación de la forma de trabajar del ministerio de Doctrina. http://blog.pucp.edu.pe/blog/buenavoz/2023/07/05/revolucion-de-francisco-en-el-dicasterio-de-la-doctrina/

La Asamblea Sinodal, tendrán que abordar una serie de cuestiones cruciales -como la posibilidad de mujeres diáconos, el sacerdocio para hombres casados, la integración de católicos LGBTQ+, la reparación por abusos sexuales y de poder, la selección de obispos, la formación del clero, etc.-

 

REFERENCIAS

Alexander Batthyany y David Guttmann. Investigación Empírica en Logoterapia y Psicoterapia-orientada al Significado. Una bibliografía comentada En colaboración con PsycINFO, departamento de la Asociación Psicológica Estadounidense (APA). Zeig, Tucker & Theisen, Inc. Phoenix, Arizona

“IDENTIDAD-EXISTENCIA EN LOGOTERAPIA: Psicoterapia de integración centrada en el significado (Spanish Edition)”, de Miguel Ángel Molla Madueño. https://a.co/0R5VTtx

Viktor Frankl. La Presencia Ignorada de Dios, Herder.

Viktor Frankl. La Voluntad de Sentido, Herder pp. 123

Santa Sede rompe tabúes en los temas a debatir en la Asamblea sinodal

La patología de la época

[Visto: 495 veces]

La magnitud e importancia de los medios electrónicos nos lleva a depender
excesivamente de ellos, lo cual ha sido llamado una especie de adicción, por
ejemplo e los celulares y su carencia lleva a “nomophobia” fobia-miedo a no
estar conectado al celular “no-mobile- phone-phobia”.

La patología de la época sería la deshumanización, el desinterés en los demás ,mucha libertad y poca responsabilidad, unido a un miedo a la fragilidad y a la soledad.

Devorados por la falta de tiempo, vivimos estresados y los medios de comunicación mas humana como la conversación han sido desplazados por los celulares y otros medios electrónicos, que es cierto facilitan la vida, pero al mismo tiempo reducen la riqueza de la capacidad humana de disfrute y contacto.

¿Cuales pueden ser los factores para superar el reduccionismo y mecanicismo de la vida moderna que nos atrapa en una especie de “cueva de platon moderna” donde celulares, la television y los video juegos nos crean una sensacion de fragilidad o a veces de inferioridad?(*)

Superar el reduccionismo y la naturaleza mecanicista de la vida moderna que puede atraparnos en una sensación de fragilidad o inferioridad requiere esfuerzos conscientes y un cambio de mentalidad. Aquí hay algunos factores que pueden ayudar:

Uso consciente de la tecnología: reconozca el impacto de la dependencia
excesiva de los teléfonos celulares, la televisión y los videojuegos. Practique
el uso consciente de la tecnología estableciendo límites, creando tiempos o
espacios designados sin tecnología y eligiendo conscientemente cuándo y cómointeractuar con los dispositivos electrónicos.

Priorice las conexiones humanas: haga un esfuerzo deliberado para priorizar las interacciones cara a cara y las conversaciones significativas.

Si se desea reconectarse de forma más humana y menos tecnológica podrían servir grupos de autoayuda, talleres de exploración emocional.

CONVERSATORIO (LIBRE PREVIA INSCIPCIÓN) Y PROXIMAMENTE
TALLERES Y GRUPOS DE ENCUENTRO.
buscaayuda: CONTACTO
https://forms.gle/2M4A7XAmrwo1hFvZ7
Miguel Molla, MA. Psicólogo Clínico,
Logoterapeuta.
Psicoterapia, aconsejamiento y apoyo:
Sesiones virtuales Análisis Existencial y
Logoterapia E.mail: migmolla@gmail.com
Logotherapy Research Centre
https://logored.center/

crisis femenina de identidad

[Visto: 784 veces]

Teenage girl sitting outdoors on the staircase covering her head with sweatshirt hood

Adolescentes en crisis: Un reciente reportaje sobre salud mental y emocional de las mujeres jóvenes, muestra alarmantes cifras.

  • 57%de las estudiantes de los últimos años de bachillerato en EE.UU. se sienten tristes o desesperadas de forma constante. Fuente: Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades de EE.UU.

Depresión, tristeza, ansiedad y estrés, que llega a afectar su salud cerebral según lo cual, las chicas ven afectado su sentido de identidad y pertenecia, mucho más que los hombres jóvenes.

Esta señal de alarma se relaciona con el mal uso de las redes sociales, donde se establecen mecanismos de control emocional sobre si mismas que no les son favorables.

En una reciente presentación de su nuevo Libro, Elisabeth Lukas y Alexander Batthyany: “LOGOTERAPIA Y ANÁLISIS EXISTENCIAL HOY” publicado en Editorial Herder, Alexander Batthyany puso de relieve, que hay que trabajar sobre el ensimismamiento de los jóvenes en su propia burbuja subjetiva, reforzado por las redes sociales, habla de la necesidad de un “sacudimiento existencial” abrir los ojos a los jóvenes para que vean la indiferencia que hay en la juventud, como una “patología de la época”, que sería necesario transmitir también a padres y profesores. Esta indiferencia es a asumir compromisos culturales, religiosos y político-sociales; ve la necesidad de salir más allá de si mismos hacia un sentido de trascendencia en el mundo, “cada hecho que viene a nuestro encuentro, aún no está acabado, porque está esperando nuestro aporte”, dice El Dr. Alexander Batthyány quien es Director del Instituto Viktor Frankl de Viena, que conduce y coordina la Logoterapia en el mundo, y Director de Investigación del mismo.

https://www.youtube.com/live/884cqK-488I?feature=share

Y por ello tengo la idea de organizar un encuentro con referencia a algunos temas que fueron citados por el Presidente del Instituto Mundial de Logoterapia, Viktor Frankl de Viena… (ver minuto 54 de la conferencia), algo para padres y maestros en particular.

A esto añadimos lo que recientemente publica la BBC: También hay cambios en el área que llamamos la red neuronal por defecto, asociada con nuestro sentido de quiénes somos en el mundo. ¿Somos una buena persona? ¿Tenemos oportunidades? ¿Cómo manejamos esa narrativa sobre nosotros mismos? ¿Creemos en nosotros mismos? ¿Nos sentimos desesperanzados o tristes? Además, vemos cambios en la amígdala, esa área con forma de almendra en la parte superior del cerebro. Eso es como un centro de alarma y es diferente en chicas y chicos. Tenga en cuenta que esto es frente a un estrés incesante.

En las chicas, vemos que su amígdala se hace más grande y eso lo asociamos con rumiar, con atascarse y reproducir los mismos pensamientos una y otra vez. Siempre se muestran diferencias en las áreas del cerebro más relacionadas con ejecutar acciones. Hay un viejo adagio que dice que cuando las niñas están abrumadas por el estrés, es más probable que actúen sobre sí mismas: como si se juzgaran a sí mismas, sintiéndose desesperanzadas, avergonzadas. Mientras que los chicos son más propensos a portarse mal. Y podemos ver en el cerebro por qué a veces eso es cierto.

Ahora, incluya las redes sociales. Las chicas están más en las redes sociales que los chicos. Sabemos que incluso si pasan la misma cantidad de tiempo en las redes que ellos, es más probable que ellas terminen sintiéndose deprimidas, ansiosas, desesperanzadas y persistentemente tristes.
En parte, esto tiene causas externas. Y es que lo que las chicas encuentran en redes sociales es mucho más sexista. Es muy probable que sea información sobre sus cuerpos, su cara, su piel, su ropa, cómo se comparan físicamente con algún falso ideal femenino bajo la mirada masculina de lo que es la perfección, de lo que es aceptable y lo que no lo es. Así que están recibiendo una carga más grande. https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-65762038

Recordemos que en la investigación realizada sobre “Trastornos de Identidad en Mujeres con Problema de Drogas”, publicada por el Fondo de Naciones Unidas de lucha contra la droga, Molla Miguel & Raguz María (1997),  encontramos que la muestra de mujeres que no eran consumidoras, tenían un patrón semejante de fragilidades, aúnque no en el mismo grado pero eran vulnerables a las agresiones del entorno.

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Molla Miguel & Raguz María

Trastornos de Identidad en Mujeres con problema de Drogas Se investigó una muestra de 50 mujeres algunas de ellas bajo condiciones de privación de libertad, por consumo y tráfico de drogas en la ciudad de Lima; se evalúa asimismo una muestra de otras 43 mujeres sin este problema, con fines de comparación. Se les aplica el Test de Identidad de Molla-(TIM), revisándolo para Mujeres. Asimismo se crean Escalas de las siguientes Áreas: la Disociabilidad, Antisociabilidad, el Trastorno de Identidad Disociativo, y las Conductas antisociales post-consumo, considerados “Índices Críticos” que podrían afectar la Identidad. Los resultados indican cuál es la forma como se relacionan las variables en estudio, la Identidad, y los índices críticos, en mujeres con y sin problema de drogas. Con un modelo de Regresión Exploratorio se comprobó que los llamados Índices Críticos forman Escalas con altos índices de confiabilidad y se relacionan significativamente con la Identidad y entre sí, (con la Identidad tienen una relación negativa). Como conclusión, encontramos que las mujeres de la muestra, en estado de privación de libertad y algunas de ellas con problema de drogas, tenían (en forma estadísticamente significativa) síntomas un trastorno de identidad disociativo, asociado con el deterioro de sus vidas.

Posteriormente se efectúa un nuevo análisis de la base de datos del estudio, relacionando ciertos indicadores de vacío existencial, cuando hay síntomas de tener afectado su identidad asociado a aspectos críticos en su vida y conducta, tener deseos de o haber intentado suicidarse, problemas psicológicos varios y problemas críticos personales.

Como resultado se encuentran valores estadísticos de correlación una clara asociación entre el tener afectado el sentimiento de historia personal y de identidad, con el vacío existencial en nuestra muestra. A mayor Trastorno de Identidad Disociativo, mayor deterioro de vida por conductas antisociales post consumo, asociado significativamente al vacío existencial.

Molla Miguel & Raguz María (1997). “Trastornos de Identidad en Mujeres con problema de Drogas”, libro publicado por Fondo de Las Naciones Unidas de Lucha contra la Drogas, UNDCP, Lima

buscaayuda:

Miguel Molla, MA. Psicólogo Clínico, Logoterapeuta.

Psicoterapia, aconsejamiento y apoyo: Sesiones virtuales Análisis Existencial y Logoterapia   E.mail:  migmolla@gmail.com

Logotherapy Research Centre
https://logored.center/

 

enfoque motivador

[Visto: 251 veces]

“La hora pasa, la pena se olvida, la obra queda” (Viktor E. Frankl)

Viktor Frankl, sintió ese poder de la fuerza espiritual del sentido, de la libertad interior, ese poder no era el exterior de los nazis, cuya fuerza no podía oponerse, sino con la conciencia de su libertad del sentido interior y la actitud adecuada, que lo hacía sentir un fuerte vínculo de compasión por sus camaradas y comprensión de lo humano como un sentido existencial de la vida como misión y trascendencia espiritual. Eso es el vivir con sentido. Es así que la Logoterapia se ha difundido ampliamente, no solamente en Europa sino en los EEUU, Canadá, Japón y en todo el mundo. Se ha publicado un Libro sobre las bases científicas e investigciones de gran relevancia en América Latina y países de habla hispana: IDENTIDAD-EXISTENCIA EN LOGOTERAPIA PSICOTERAPIA DE INTEGRACIÓN DE IDENTIDAD CENTRADA EN EL SIGNIFICADO.

Ahora se puede comprar por Internet la versión electrónica.En este Link https://logored.center/2023/05/10/libro-identidad-y-existencia/

 

Vida y el trabajo de Viktor Frankl

[Visto: 393 veces]

Prof. Elisabeth Lukas, PhD (Hon. Pres.) Viktor Frankl Institute Vienna

Una inmersión en la vida y el trabajo de Viktor Emil Frankl….
Difícilmente hay otro concepto en la psicoterapia que esté tan refinado, probado, tan firmemente arraigado en su base teórica, y al mismo tiempo tan flexible en aplicación práctica como la logoterapia.
La riqueza de las ideas de Viktor Frankl encuentra aplicación en granjas de rehabilitación de medicamentos en América del Sur, en asesoría carcelaria en Norteamérica, en clínicas japonesas para el tratamiento de enfermedades psicosomáticas y lesiones, en proyectos gerontológicos israelíes, en la enseñanza de ética en escuelas de Europa,… La lista podría durar mucho tiempo, llevaría muchas páginas. La logoterapia es tan efectiva que se usa fuera de la psicoterapia. La logoterapia se ha adaptado y aplicado con éxito en Psicología, Filosofía, Pedagogía, Servicio Social, Medicina, Trabajo con Adolescentes, enfermería, Ancianos, Asesoramiento Familiar, Economía Empresarial, etc. Y los resultados son increíbles Logoterapia ha comprendido tan profundamente la especie llamada “humana” en toda su diversidad que está en línea con los resultados de la labor de los investigadores universitarios y científicos de alto rango, y la simple percepción de la persona ordinaria está en línea con la esencia de las grandes religiones del mundo y la sabiduría popular centenaria con su eterna búsqueda de la felicidad en la vida. E indudablemente, la cuestión del sentido agudizará, sorprenderá e instigará las mentes de la nueva generación del milenio…

Dra. Elizabeth Lukas y Viktor Frankl

(puesto en facebook por Marcos Vieira)

La logoterapia a la luz de las circunstancias actuales

 

Diez tesis sobre la persona

[Visto: 595 veces]

VISIÓN DE LA PERSONA Y LA EXISTENCIA DE LA LOGOTERAPIA

El Prof. Dr. Franz J. Vesely, directivo en el Consejo del Instituto Viktor Frankl de Viena, y profesor  · University of Vienna con apoyo de David Nolland, han traducido del alemán los textos originales escritos por Viktor Frankl Ten theses about the person. Esta traducción es excelente, siendo que hemos encontrado más completas y mejor desarrolladas las ideas en este tema, cuando se lee a Frankl -y es traducido desde su idioma original y se puede descargar como pdf ten_theses_vesely (1)  Download as PDF

Para Viktor Frankl, creador de la Logoterapia, la persona es un individuo: La persona es algo indivisible, no se puede subdividir ni escindir precisamente porque es una unidad. Pero no solamente es un in-dividuum sino que también es insumable; esto significa que no es sólo indivisible, sino que tampoco se puede fundir y esto no se puede hacer porque no solamente es unidad sino que también es totalidad.

La logoterapia considera al hombre como un ser somático-psíquico-espiritual en donde lo somático hace parte y refleja al hombre pero no en su totalidad; de igual forma sucede con lo psíquico y lo espiritual.

Referencias:

Ten theses about the person Translated by Franz Vesely and David
Nolland (Source: Der Wille zum Sinn, Hogrefe Verlag) que se puede descargar de este enlace:  https://viktorfrankl.org/assets/pdf/ten_theses_vesely.pdf

DIEZ TESIS SOBRE LA PERSONA (textos extraídos de La voluntad de
sentido de Viktor Frankl) Herder,Barcelona pp106.