18/01/12: INTEGRACION PARA LA INCLUSIÓN SOCIAL DEL PERÚ

INTEGRACIÓN PARA LA INCLUSIÓN SOCIAL

Efraín Gonzales de Olarte

El Perú es un archipiélago de departamentos y provincias desigualmente integrados, lo que impide una inclusión social más rápida y más efectiva.

En un reciente estudio del autor , en el que se ha estimado el Indice de Integración para la Inclusión Humana (IIIH) hemos encontrado que el departamento más integrado es Lima, con un IIIH= 0.45 (siendo 0: nada integrado y 1: perfectamente integrado), y el menos integrado es Huancavelica con 0.14, tres veces menos integrado que su vecina Lima. Es decir, aún el departamento más moderno está lejos de estar medianamente integrado. Obviamente, el resultado en el desarrollo humano es que Lima tiene un IDH de 0.679 y Huancavelica 0.539, o sea: a mayor integración mayor desarrollo.

El IIIH mide de manera muy simple las carreteras que unen los poblados, el acceso a electricidad y a comunicaciones, como indicador de integración física. El porcentaje de la fuerza laboral asalariada, el acceso al crédito medido por el ratio colocaciones bancarias sobre PBI departamental, miden la integración económica. Y el porcentaje de contribuyentes sobre la fuerza laboral y el gasto estatal como porcentaje del PBI departamental, como indicador de integración al estado. Todos estos indicadores, estimados en porcentajes se suman y se obtiene el IIIH, que nos da una idea multidimensional del grado en que los habitantes de cada departamento participan en los mercados, de cuales son las facilidades que tienen para comunicarse, para trasladarse y para acceder a una fuente de energía, además con cuánto contribuyen al estado y cuánto reciben en bienes y servicios públicos.

En suma, mide el grado en el que participamos en la economía y la sociedad en cada lugar del Perú. Los resultados nos dicen que más que un país somos un archipiélago de departamentos y provincias en proceso de integración. Por ello, cualquier política para impulsar la “inclusión social” no puede hacerse sólo desde la mejora y aumento del gasto social del estado, pasa por mejorar todos los componentes que permiten la integración en sus diferentes facetas. Por ello, a parte del nuevo Ministerio de la Inclusión Social, necesitamos que los otros ministerios coordinen y, sobre todo, que haya acuerdos con el sector privado para la inversión y la generación de empleo.

Publicado en el suplemento D1 de El Comercio, el 19 de diciembre del 2011

Puntuación: 5 / Votos: 1

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