How NPC (National People’s Congress) delegates pass laws in China

China’s annual political season is underway. The country’s legislative process is different from western countries. Here is an explanation of how laws are passed during the National People’s Congress.

1. Delegates introduce a bill to the NPC: A delegation, or group of no less than 30 deputies in the NPC, introduces a bill.

2. The presidium decides if the bill moves forward: The Presidium is a committee of about 170 senior NPC members. It is this group’s responsibility to decide if a bill will be put on the agenda or referred to a special committee for further consideration.

3. A sponsor explains the bill: The bill’s sponsor briefs lawmakers during a plenary meeting. Representatives are available to answer questions.

4. The bill gets three readings: During the first reading, the sponsor gives an introduction to the bill. The Standing Committee then discusses it in groups.

At the second reading, the Legislative Work Committee gives a report on any amendments to the draft, and any outstanding issues are brought to a full session of the Standing Committee. Further discussions are held in groups.

At the third reading, the Legislative Work Committee reports on the results of the second round deliberations to the full Standing Committee.

5. Review of the draft: A bill submitted by the Standing Committee to a forthcoming session of the NPC must be distributed to all deputies in draft form one month before the session begins.

6. Bills are voted on: Any bill that receives two-thirds of the votes from NPC deputies (currently there are 2,943) at the NPC/CPPCC session are adopted. The results are announced immediately.

7. Presidential enactment: The bill formally becomes law when signed by China’s president.

By: Xiaolu Sun

In: cctv

¿Pagas “Union Due” (Cuota Sindical)?: Leyes sobre Derecho al Trabajo (Right-to-Work) en Kentucky

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Desde los caballos y la energía, el carbón y los coches, el Estado del Bluegrass trabaja muy duro. Y en gran parte, los sindicatos han trabajado duro en nombre de los empleados para proteger sus intereses. Como la mayoría de los residentes de Kentucky saben, la relación entre trabajo y  gestión a menudo puede ser motivo de controversia, por decirlo suavemente, y requiere la cooperación de todas las partes a mantener las relaciones cordiales. En los últimos años, muchos estados han aprobado leyes para alterar la forma en la que los empleados, los empleadores y los sindicatos trabajan en conjunto.

Esta es una introducción a lo que se conoce como la leyes de “Derecho al Trabajo” en Kentucky.

Leyes de Derecho al Trabajo (Right-to-Work laws)

En total, 24 estados de la unión tienen leyes de “derecho al trabajo”, ya sean reconocidas en la constitución del estado o en un estatuto legal, aprobadas en los últimos años. En general, estas leyes prohíben a los empleadores exigir la afiliación sindical, o el pago de la cuota sindical, como requisito previo a los empleados para conseguir y mantener un trabajo.

Regulación del Derecho al Trabajo (Right-to-Work laws) en Kentucky

La legislación de derecho al trabajo llegó a un comité de la cámara de representantes del Estado de Kentucky en el año 2014, pero quedó allí. Tanto los republicanos como los demócratas predijeron que la cuestión del Derecho al Trabajo jugaría un papel en futuras elecciones y otro proyecto de ley podría ser propuesto pronto, a finales de 2014 no hay ninguna ley referida al Derecho al Trabajo en los registros de Kentucky.

¿Qué hacen las leyes de Derecho al Trabajo?

Las leyes del Derecho al Trabajo rigen la relación entre los sindicatos, los empleados y los empleadores. Prohíben a los empleadores o sindicatos exigir a los empleados unirse a un sindicato o pagar cuotas sindicales. Asimismo, los empleadores no están autorizados a excluir a los trabajadores no sindicalizados del proceso de contratación. Muchos estados del sur han tenido durante mucho tiempo las leyes de Derecho al Trabajo, pero Kentucky se resiste al cambio al ser un Estado pro-sindicato.

Aunque muchos estados del Norte y del Medio Oeste han añadido sus propios estatutos sobre Derecho a Trabajo en los últimos años, el impacto global de las leyes sobre salarios, afiliación sindical, y convenios colectivos de trabajo aún no se ha determinado con precisión. Naturalmente, los sindicatos se han opuesto universalmente a las leyes de Derecho al Trabajo, mientras que la mayoría de empresas y cámaras de comercio han presionado fuertemente a su favor.

Leyes de Derecho al Trabajo en Kentucky: Recursos relacionados

Si bien actualmente no existen leyes de Derecho al Trabajo en vigor en Kentucky, esto siempre puede cambiar dependiendo de las elecciones y el apoyo de los votantes. Puede ponerse en contacto con un abogado laboral de Kentucky en su área si desea asesoría legal en relación con una cuestión sindical o laboral. También puede visitar Centro de Derechos del Trabajador de FindLaw para revisar artículos adicionales e información sobre este tema.

Estados con leyes de Derecho al Trabajo

Alabama | Arizona | Arkansas | Florida | Georgia | Guam | IdahoIndiana | Iowa | Kansas |Louisiana | Michigan (Private/Public) | Mississippi | Nebraska | Nevada | North Carolina | North Dakota | Oklahoma |South Carolina | South Dakota | Tennessee | Texas | Utah | Virginia | Wisconsin| Wyoming

Información traducida con fines educativos de: findlaw y The National Right to Work Legal Defense Foundation

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Estados con Derecho al Trabajo Right-to-Work States 

Right-to-Work bill dies in Kentucky House committee

Cámara de Representantes del Estado de Kentucky

Japan Passes Bills to Allow Troops to Fight in Overseas Wars

Japan hasn’t sent military into combat since World War II. Fierce public opposition to changes undermined support for Abe

Japanese ruling and opposition lawmakers scuffle at the Upper House's ad hoc committee session for the controversial security bills at the National Diet in Tokyo on Thursday. Photographer: Yoshikazu Tsuno/AFP/Getty Images

Japanese ruling and opposition lawmakers scuffle at the Upper House’s ad hoc committee session for the controversial security bills at the National Diet in Tokyo on Thursday. Photographer: Yoshikazu Tsuno/AFP/Getty Images

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe pushed through legislation allowing Japan to send troops to fight in overseas conflicts for the first time since World War II, after facing down a summer of protests that sank his popularity.

Parliament gave final passage of bills to allow the military to defend an ally under attack and take a bigger role in international peacekeeping. Abe says the measures will improve deterrence and protect the nation from growing regional threats. For critics, the bills could end seven decades of pacifism and risk drawing Japan into U.S.-led conflicts.

Thousands of people have been demonstrating in the rain outside parliament against the bills this week and opposition lawmakers used stall tactics to delay their passage. China was quick to respond to the outcome in a statement urging Japan to learn lesson from history. South Korea said the North Asia country should contribute to regional peace and stability.

Abe prevailed, tapping his coalition’s commanding majority to force through a reinterpretation of the country’s pacifist constitution in the biggest change to defense policy in 70 years. Abe faced fierce opposition in a nation still scarred by the suffering wrought by World War II and the atomic bombings of 1945 that have left many Japanese with a deep-seated aversion to military action.

Pacifist Mindset

“Pacifism is deeply embedded in Japanese national identity as a foundation for the peace and prosperity achieved in the postwar period,” said Jeff Kingston, director of Asian Studies at Temple University in Japan. “They know from relatives’ experiences about the folly of war launched by reckless leaders unconstrained by the law or constitution.”

The constitution that renounces war was drafted by the U.S. during its postwar occupation of the country. Seventy years after the conflict, Japan finds itself in a changed world. The nation is in range of North Korea’s ballistic missiles, faces the growing military muscle of neighboring China and is a target of international terrorism. Abe, knowing how difficult it would be to revise the top law, pushed the legislation to reinterpret its pacifist clause to permit collective self defense.

“This legislation is necessary to defend the lives and peaceful existence of our people and to prevent war,” Abe told reporters in a live broadcast by NHK after the bill’s passing. “I will be persistent and faithful in explaining this position” to the citizens.

Summer of Protests

Demonstrators hold a banner as they stage a protest against Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's controversial security bills in front of the National Diet in Tokyo on Thursday. Photographer: KAZUHIRO NOGI/AFP/Getty Images

Demonstrators hold a banner as they stage a protest against Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s controversial security bills in front of the National Diet in Tokyo on Thursday. Photographer: KAZUHIRO NOGI/AFP/Getty Images

More than 100,000 people demonstrated against the bills across Japan on Aug. 30 and thousands more returned to the streets outside parliament in Tokyo this week as the showdown over the legislation neared.

“Japan is a country that can’t say no to America,” said Misaki Takashima, a 51-year-old housewife at the protest, who braved sputtering Tokyo rain on Friday to voice her opposition. “I’m worried that because the U.S. is always fighting lots of wars and Japan may start fighting with them.”

Passing the bills would free Abe to return his focus to his plan to boost inflation and growth in Asia’s second-biggest economy, which remains on the brink of recession even after more than two years of fiscal and monetary stimulus. The fight over the security bills has dominated his agenda for months.

While public opposition was fierce, the bills have been welcomed by the U.S., which wants support from its biggest Asian ally to help balance China’s growing assertiveness in the region. Other governments in Asia are also largely supportive, apart from China and South Korea, which remain at loggerheads with Japan over territorial disputes and interpretations of history.

Japanese nationalists, who tend to support Abe’s Liberal Democratic Party, have longed chafed over constraints on the military. Abe took up the mantle for bolstering the defense forces from his grandfather, Nobusuke Kishi, who was accused of war crimes for his role in the colonization of parts of China and campaigned for constitutional change when he later served as prime minister.

Sliding popularity

Still, the country’s nationalists are in the minority, and the flap over the bills has pushed Abe’s popularity toward record lows. The slide doesn’t mean he’s in danger of being replaced. He was selected unopposed this month for a second three-year term as leader of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party, setting him on course to become the longest-serving premier since the 1970s. Backing for the opposition Democratic Party of Japan has barely nudged higher even with Abe’s slide.

A poll by public broadcaster NHK this month showed almost two-thirds of respondents didn’t believe Abe’s assertion the bills would make Japan safer. Support for the government in the poll stood at 43 percent, compared with 64 percent in January 2013, shortly after he took office.