Archivo por meses: enero 2021

Unit 9: Celebrating the Bicentennial of Independence Declaration from Spain

Just go over the reading of this adaptation from and find out by yourself and according to your experience, a couple of things you may not have known about the Bicentennial Independence Declaration that we are about to celebrate in a few months.

In January 1817 San Martín led his army of Argentines and fugitives from Chile over the Andes and surprised the Spanish army in Chile. After having captured and occupied Santiago on February 15, San Martín was offered the supreme dictatorship of Chile but declined in favor of his friend and colleague Bernardo O’Higgins. He made Chile completely free of Spanish troops by May 15, 1818 and began planning for an invasion of Peru.

Later, in August 1820 the army of San Martín was transported toward Peru, convoyed by warships under Lord Cochrane. Within a year San Martín was able to occupy the capital, and on July 28, 1821, he proclaimed the independence of Peru from Spain. On August 3 he accepted the position of supreme protector of Peru.

However, considerable fighting was still needed before Peruvian independence was assured, since the bulk of the Spanish army had merely withdrawn into the mountains and was still a viable fighting force and a threat. San Martín considered that he did not have enough force to meet the Spaniards and would need the aid of the armies of Simón Bolívar, who had just liberated the areas of Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. For that purpose, San Martín and Bolívar met at Guayaquil; that conference is one of the most disputed points in South American history.

Possibly they disputed over Guayaquil, which Bolívar had just occupied, and which San Martín wanted to be a part of Peru. Possibly they disagreed on the type of government to be instituted in Perú. San Martín did not believe that Peruvian were ready for democracy, and he probably preferred a constitutional monarchy, whereas Bolívar believed, at that time, in complete democracy. Possibly they disagreed on the terms by which the armies of Bolívar would be brought into Peru. At any rate, San Martín left the conference in a precipitous manner, returned immediately to Peru, resigned his power and positions to the Congress, and left Bolívar in undisputed leadership.

Adapted from

a). After reading the text, these are the two things I was not told about when I studied about the Independence Declaration of Perú.

b). Do you agree with San Martin’s point of view that we were not ready for democracy? Support your answer in the light of these 200 years.



CLECV3 Blog Unit 7

Critical Thinking : CLECV3 BLOG Unit 7

This section is meant to reinforce the reading skills we develop in the unit, with the additional benefit to deepen in the Critical Thinking Sections of your textbook “Active Skills”  Unit 7. Let’s join in a productive exchange of ideas by posting your answers and replying the ones posted by your peers.

(Picture retrieved from

Page 90 – Unit 7

1          Do you think old universities are better than new universities? Why, or why  not?

2          Before universities, how do you think people passed down knowledge?

 Page 94 – Unit 7

1          What challenges did the engineers have building these structures described in the unit?

2          What are examples of excellent engineering in your city or town? Why?